The name is of ancient Indo-European roots and is also the modern Latvian and Lithuanian word for the sun.
In ancient Baltic religions, Saule was an extremely important diety, she is considered the goddess of all living things and of fertility. She was also revered as the great mother who extended her shining warmth over all who lived under her.
According to some Lithuanian folk songs, Saulė married Mėnuo, (the Moon), but because of his infidelity, she divorced him, and they ended up living apart, hence is why there is night and day.
Saulė and Mėnuo had 6 daughters, who were embodiments of the stars, Aušrinė, (who prepares the way for her mother each morning), Vakarinė (the Evening Star, who puts her mother to bed each evening), Indraja (Jupiter), Sėlilja (Saturn) and Žiezdrė (Mercury).
On June 23 (Midsummer’s Eve) a great festival was held in Saulė’s honour.
In Lithuanian, the designated name-day for Saulė is February 14th.
Saule is the Latvian form.
Lithuanian masculine forms include: Saulenis and Saulius.
Other Lithuanian forms include: Saulenė, Saulina