Thurstan, Torsten

  • Origin: Old Norse
  • Meaning: “Thor’s stone.”
  • Gender: masculine

Both names are derived from the Old Norse male name, Þórsteinn, literally meaning “Thor’s stone.” The name is attested as early as the 5th-century in Medieval Scandinavia and appears in the Norse saga, Draumr Þorsteins Síðu-Hallssonar.

It was transported to England by Anglo-Saxon & Norse settlers, the Anglo-Saxon form being Thurstan, and remained prevalent even after the conquest of the Normans, who themselves also used the name due to their original Norse heritage. Thurstan was borne by an 11th-century Bishop of York. Thurstan is the progenitor of the English surnames Thurston and Dustin.

Torsten appeared in Germany’s Top 100 Most Popular Male Names between 1960 and 1978, and peaked at #6 between 1964-68. While Torstein was in and out of the Norwegian Top 100 Male Names between 1947-1991, peaking at #84 in 1948. It’s original Old Norse form of Þórsteinn ranked in at #46 in Iceland’s Top 100 Male Names in 2012.

Forms include:

  • Turstin (Anglo-Norman, French)
  • Thurstan (English)
  • Tórstein (Faroese)
  • Torstein, Thorstein (Faroese, Norwegian)
  • Toro, Torro (Finnish, Scandinavian)
  • Torste,Torsti (Finnish)
  • Toutain (French, archaic)
  • Torsten (German, Scandinavian)
  • Thorsten (German, Scandinavian)
  • Torstene, Torsteni (Greenlandic)
  • Þórsteinn (Icelandic, Old Norse)
  • Turstino (Italian, Spanish)
  • Turstanus, Tursteinus, Turstinus (Late Latin)
  • Twyste (Middle Low German)
  • Tostein (Norwegian)
  • Dorste (Sami)
  • Toste (Scandinavian)
  • Tosten, Thosten (Swedish, archaic)

Sources

Osborn, Espen, Asbjørn

Osborn and Asbjørn are both composed of the Norse elements áss (god) & bjǫrn (bear), essentially meaning “divine bear.” Osborn is the modern Anglo-Saxon equivalent of Osbeorn, the latter of which was prevalent in Anglo-Saxon England and survived into the Norman period as Osbern, later developing into the common English patronymic surnames of Osbourne & Osbourn. Its Scandinavian equivalents still survive today in the forms of Esben (Danish), Espen (Danish, Norwegian) and still Asbjørn (Norwegian); and Asbjörn & Esbjörn (Swedish).

Osbeorn was borne by the son of Siward of Northumbria (circ. 11th-century CE) and one of the fallen of the Battle of the Seven Sleepers in Scotland. It was also borne by Osbern de Crépon (circ. 11th-century CE), one of the stewards of the Duke of Normandy. There are several other famous Anglophone personages who bear it as a surname and forename.

Asbjørn appeared in the Norwegian Top 100 Male Names between between 1945 & 1967, it peaked at #35 in 1946-7, while Espen appeared in the Top 100 in Norway between 1957-2004, peaking at #8 in 1982.

The designated name-day for Asbjörn is May 10th in Sweden.

General Scandinavian diminutive forms used in all Norse countries are Ebbe, Bjarne & Bjarni.

Short forms in English include Oz(z), Ozzie & Ozzy.

Other forms include:

  • Osbeorn (Anglo-Saxon)
  • Esbern (Danish, Faroese)
  • Asbjørn (Danish, Norwegian)
  • Esben, Espen (Danish, Norwegian)
  • Ausburn (English)
  • Osbourn (English)
  • Osbern (French, archaic)
  • Auber (French, archaic)
  • Ásbjörn (Icelandic)
  • Osberno (Italian)
  • Sberno (Italian)
  • Ásbjǫrn (Old Norse)
  • Asbjörn/Esbjörn (Swedish)

Sources

Rudy, Rudolph, Rolf

200px-Rudolf_IV


  • Origin: German
  • Meaning: “famous wolf.”
  • Gender: Masculine

The name is derived from the Germanic Hrodulf, which is composed of the elements hrod (fame) and wulf (wolf). The name was borne by several European rulers.

In England, it has been in use since Anglo-Saxon times, its Anglo-Saxon form of Hroðulf was usurped by the Norman Rudolph and Rodolph in the 11th-century.

In the English-speaking world, the name has come to be associated with the Christmas folk hero, Rudolph the Red-nosed Reindeer, based on a children’s book written by Robert L. May in 1939.

Rudolf appeared in the U.S. Top 1000 between 1887-1932, and peaked at # 715 in 1916. He appeared 3 times in the French Top 1000 in 1914, 1931 and again in 1933, peaking at #454 in 1934. He was in the German Top 20 between 1893 and 1936, peaking at #11 in 1899 and in 1916.

In France, it’s native form of Rodolphe appeared in the Top 1000 between 1900 and 2001 and peaked at #79 in 1970.

Its contracted form of Rolf has been in occasional use in England since the 11th-century. It was a favorite in German-speaking countries in the 1920s-50s, peaking at #11 in 1947. In Norway, it peaked at #14 in 1945. Rolf has also appeared in the American and French charts, though not very high. Rolf peaked at #210 in France in 1943 and #772 in 1960 in the U.S.

It his diminutive form of Rudy, often used as an independent given-name, is the one which has gained some traction in recent years. Rudy appeared in the French Top 100 between 1979-1984, and peaked at #76 in 1980. Rudy’s current rankings in the popularity charts are as follows:

  • #271 (England & Wales, 2018)
  • #822 (U.S.A., 2018)

Rudolf is used in Albanian, Armenian, Czech-Slovak, Dutch, Hungarian, Icelandic, Polish, Serbo-Croatian, Slovene, the Scandinavian languages and Russian.

Other forms include:

  • Hroðulf, Hrothulf (Anglo-Saxon)
  • Roel, Roelof, Ruud (Dutch)
  • Rodolf (Catalan)
  • Rolph (English)
  • Rudo, Ruudo, Ruudolf (Estonian)
  • Róðolvur (Faroese)
  • Ruuto, Ruutolffi, Ruutolhvi, Ruutolppi (Finnish)
  • Rodolphe (French)
  • Roele, Roelef, Roelf, Rolef, Rolof, Roloff, Roluf, Roolof (Frisian)
  • Rudolp რუდოლფ (Georgian)
  • Roff (German)
  • Rudi (German, Hungarian, Serbo-Croatian, Slovenian)
  • Rudo (German)
  • Rul (German)
  • Rûtulfe, Ruutuulfi (Greenlandic)
  • Rhodólphos Ροδόλφος (Greek)
  • Rúdólf (Icelandic)
  • Rodolfino (Italian)
  • Rodolfo (Italian, Portuguese, Spanish)
  • Ridolfo (Italian)
  • Rudolphus (Latin)
  • Rūdolfs, Rūdis (Latvian)
  • Rudolfas, Rudas (Lithuanian)
  • Doffen (Norwegian)
  • Roffe (Norwegian, Swedish)
  • Hróðólfr, Hrólfr (Old Norse)
  • Rudulf (Polish, archaic)
  • Duff, Dusch, Riedi, Ruosch (Romansch)
  • Ruedi (Swiss-German, diminutive form, occasionally used as an independent form)

Feminine forms include:

  • Rudolfia (Danish, Norwegian)
  • Rodolphine (French)
  • Rudolfine (German, Scandinavian)
  • Rodolfa, Rodolfina (Italian, Spanish)
  • Rodolfetta (Italian)
  • Rudolfa (Polish, Scandinavian)
  • Rudolfina (Hungarian, Polish, Scandinavian)

Sources

Malo

Gender: Masculine
Origin: Breton
Meaning: “pledge of light; light pledge.”
Fre (MAH-loh)

The name is composed of the Breton elements, mac’h (pledge; warrant) and luh (light).

The name was borne by one of the founding saints of Brittany, many legends have been attributed to him over the centuries, but what is known for sure is that he was Welshman who was the favorite desciple of St. Brendan the Navigator. The place of Saint-Malo in France was named for him as was Saint-Maclou.

As of 2010, Malo was the 101st most popular male name in France.

Other forms of the name include:

  • Maloù (Breton)
  • Maclovi (Catalan)
  • Macléo (French)
  • Maclou (French/Picard)
  • Maclov (French)
  • Malo (French/Welsh)
  • Malou (French)
  • Maclovio (Italian)
  • Macuto (Italian)
  • Maclovius (Latin)
  • Machutus (Latin)
  • Mâlo (Norman)
  • Macoult (Poitvin)

Eleanor

Gender: Feminine
Origin: Occitanian
Meaning: “the other Aenor”
Eng (EL-e-NOR)

The name is derived from the Latin Alia Aenor, which literally means, the “other Aenor”, according to most historical sources, the most notable bearer, Eleanor of Aquitaine, was named for her mother Aenor and as a way to distinguish her from her mother, she was dubbed Alia Aenor.

The meaning of Aenor is uncertain, but may be connected to the Latin verb ienire, meaning “to heal.”

The name was borne by Eleanor of Aquitaine, known in Old French as Aliénor d’Aquitaine, (1122-1204), the daughter of William X, Duke of Aquitaine, she grew up to be one of the most powerful people in medieval Western Europe and became Queen Consort of both France and England.

Her popularity throughout France, Spain, Italy, Portugal and England. It was also borne by two other queens, Eleanor of Provence and Eleanor of Castile, the former was canonized a saint.

Eleanor has produced several other common offshoots, such as Lenore, the name of the departed love in Edgar Allan Poe’s poem, The Raven (1845); Elnora and Nora.

In modern American history, it was borne by First Lady and humanitarian, Eleanor Roosevelt (1884-1962).

It is currently the name of the crown princess Infanta of Spain, Leonor.

Currently, Eleanor is the 61st most popular female name in England/Wales, (2010). She is currently the 165th most popular female name in the United States, (2010). Her rankings in other countries are as follows:

  • # 2 (Leonor, Portugal, 2010)
  • # 125 (Eléonore, France, 2009)

Common English diminutives include: Ella, Ellie, Nell, Nellie and Nora.

Other forms include:

  • Eleanora (Breton/Norwegian
  • Elionor (Catalan)
  • Eleonora Елеонор (Belarusian/Czech/Danish/Dutch/Faroese/Icelandic/Italian/Polish/Swedish)
  • Elenora (Danish)
  • Eleanor (English/Estonian/Romanian)
  • Elnora (English)
  • Lenora (English)
  • Leonora (English/German/Italian/Portuguese/Spanish)
  • Lenore (English/German)
  • Nell (English: originally a diminutive form, now used as an independent given name)
  • Nellie (English: originally a diminutive form, now used as an independent given name)
  • Nora (English/Italian: originally a diminutive form, now used as an independent given name)
  • Eleonoora (Finnish)
  • Noora (Finnish)
  • Éléonore (French)
  • Eleonore (German)
  • Eleōnora Ελεωνόρα (Greek: Modern)
  • Eleonóra (Hungarian/Slovak)
  • Lenóra (Hungarian)
  • Elenóra (Icelandic)
  • Nóra (Irish-Gaelic)
  • Nóirín/Noreen (Irish-Gaelic)
  • Elianora/Elinora (Italian)
  • Noretta (Italian)
  • Norina (Italian)
  • Alienora (Late Latin)
  • Léionore (Norman)
  • Ellinor/Elinor (Norwegian/Swedish)
  • Alienòr (Occitanian)
  • Leonor (Portuguese/Spanish)
  • Aliénor (Provençal)
  • Alenora Альенора (Russian)
  • Eilidh (Scots-Gaelic: originally a diminutive form, now very popular as an independent given name)
  • Eilionoir (Scots-Gaelic)
  • Elna (Swedish: contracted form).

The designated name-day is February 22.

German diminutives are: Lola, Lorle, Lore, Nora and Nordel.

A Dutch diminutive is Noortje.

Hungarian diminutives include: Ella, Leonorka, Lóra, Lórácska, Lóri, Nelli, Nóra, Norcsi, Nóri and Nórici.

Sources

  1. http://www.askoxford.com/firstnames/eleanor?view=uk
  2. http://www.behindthename.com/php/find.php?name=eleanor
  3. Alison Weir, Eleanor of Aquitaine: A Life, Ballantine Books, 2001
  4. Kálmán BélaA nevek világa
  5. Marion MeadeEleanor of Aquitaine: a biography, Hawthorn Books, 1977
  6. Régine PernoudEleanor of Aquitaine, Coward-McCann, 1968

Oliver, Olivier

Gender: Masculine
Origin: debated
Meaning: debated
Eng (AHL-ih-VER); Fre (oh-LEE-vyay)

This name has a very interesting past. Its origins and meaning are debated, despite its obvious similarity with the word “olive”, many sources believe that is is either derived from one or two Old Norse names, Alfihar or OleifrAlfihar meaning “elf army” or Oleifr meaning “ancestral relic,” while other sources argue that it is indeed related to the Latin word oliverus meaning “olive tree.”

The name first appears in the French epic poem, Le Chanson de Roland. Olivier is the one of the better retainers of Roland. The name was introduced into England by the Normans and was consequently anglicized as Oliver.

The name has been in and out of usage in the English-speaking world since the Middle Ages. There was a time in England when the name went out of favor due to the bloody exploits of Oliver Cromwell. It was revived in the 19th-century due to Dicken’s lovable orphaned character of Oliver Twist.

In recent years, the name has seemed to go through a revival in both the United States and the United Kingdom. In 1979, Oliver ranked in at # 396 for the most popular male names in the United States, in 2010, however, he cracked into the top 100, making it all the way up to # 88. No doubt thanks to the popularity of its seemingly feminine form of Olivia.

As of 2010, he was the most popular male name in England/Wales. His rankings in other countries are as follows:

  • # 3 (Australia, NSW, 2010)
  • # 3 (New Zealand, 2010)
  • # 6 (Norway, 2010)
  • # 7 (Sweden, 2010)
  • # 8 (Scotland, 2010)
  • # 9 (Denmark, 2010)
  • # 10 (Finland, 2011)
  • # 12 (Ólafur, Iceland, 2010)
  • # 16 (Northern Ireland, 2010)
  • # 23 (Canada, BC, 2010)
  • # 25 (Oliwier, Poland, 2009)
  • # 38 (Olivér, Hungary, 2010)
  • # 48 (Óliver, Iceland, 2010)
  • # 51 (Austria, 2010)
  • # 52 (Ireland, 2010)
  • # 55 (Olivier, Netherlands, 2010)
  • # 86 (Spain, 2010)
  • # 269 (Netherlands, 2010)
  • # 305 (Olivier, France, 2009)

The name is used throughout continental Europe. Its French form of Olivier is still fairly common in France and it is occassionally found in the Bayous of Louisiana among Cajun families, along with its lovely accented drawled out pronunciation of (oh-LIV-ee-AY).

In Poland it is rendered as Oliwer pronounced the same way as in English though the final R is rolled. In Iceland the popular male name of Olafur may be related. Pronounced (OH-lahf-ER), it has a feminine form of Olafia (OH-lah-FEE-ah).

Popular English nicknames are Ollie and the less common Noll.

Its designated name day is July 12.

Other forms include:

  • Olivier (Afrikaans/Dutch/French/Frisian)
  • Oliver Оливер (Croatian/Czech/Dutch/English/Estonian/Finnish/German/Hungarian/Macedonian/Portuguese/Russian/Serbian/Slovak/Spanish)
  • Fier (Dutch: originally a diminutive form, used as an independent given name)
  • Oluvier (Dutch)
  • Olivur (Faroese)
  • Ólivar (Faroese)
  • Olivér (Hungarian)
  • Ólafur (Icelandic)
  • Óliver (Icelandic)
  • Ólíver (Icelandic)
  • Oilibhéar (Irish)
  • Oliviero (Italian)
  • Olivarius/Oliverus (Latin)
  • Alfher (Old High German)
  • Áleifr (Old Norse)
  • Oliwer/Oliwier (Polish)
  • Oliwir/Olwer/Olwir (Polish: obscure)
  • Oliveiros (Portuguese)
  • Olaghair (Scottish)
  • Oilbhreis (Scottish)

George

Gender: Masculine
Origin: Greek Γεωργιος
Meaning: “farmer.”
Eng (JORJ)

The name is an English and Romanian form of the Greek, Georgios Γεωργιος, which is derived from the Greek γεωργος (georgos) meaning, “farmer; earth worker.”

The name was borne by a 4th-century Christian saint and martyr, a Roman soldier of Greek ancestry who refused to sacrifice to pagan gods as demanded by the Roman Emperor at the time. He was popularized in the Western Christian Church after the Crusades, when soldiers brought the story back to Western Europe. The saints’ story was embellished and his story appears in the Golden Legend.

The most famous legend was that during the saint’s life, he managed to rescue a maiden who was about to be sacrificed to a dragon by slaying it with his lance. This legend has been the subject of art for centuries.

Though revered as the patron saint of England, the name itself did not catch on in until the 18th-century, following the accession of George I of England. The name has been borne by several kings throughout Europe. It was also borne by the first president of the United States, George Washington.

In Medieval times, English troops would chant “by George“, as a invocation to the saint to protect them in battle.

Between 1880 and 1937, George remained in the U.S. top 10. As of 2010, he only ranked in as the 164th most popular male name. His rankings in other countries are as follows:

  • # 1 (Georgi, Bulgaria, 2007)
  • # 1 (Georgios, Greece, 2010)
  • # 2 (Giorgi, Georgia, 2011)
  • # 5 (Yegor, Belarus, 2011)
  • # 9 (England/Wales, 2010)
  • # 12 (Yegor, Russia, 2011)
  • # 16 (Jorge, Spain, 2010)
  • # 19 (Jiří, Czech Republic, 2010)
  • # 20 (Romania, 2009)
  • # 22 (Jordi, Catalonia, 2010)
  • # 27 (Jure, Slovenia, 2010)
  • # 42 (Jorge, Chile, 2010)
  • # 53 (Juraj, Croatia, 2010)
  • # 69 (Jure, Croatia, 2010)
  • # 73 (Australia, NSW, 2010)
  • # 75 (Jurij, Slovenia, 2010)
  • # 76 (Jørgen, Norway, 2010)
  • # 78 (Jorge, Mexico, 2010)
  • # 80 (Joris, Netherlands, 2010)
  • # 82 (Jordi, Spain, 2010)
  • # 84 (Jurica, Croatia, 2010)
  • # 100 (Scotland, 2010)
  • # 168 (Jorge, United States, 2010)
  • # 233 (Joris, France, 2009)
  • # 420 (Jordi, Netherlands, 2010)

Other forms of the name include:

  • Gjergj (Albanian)
  • Jorgo (Albanian)
  • Giorgis ጊዮርጊስ (Amharic)
  • Jurj(us)  جرج  جرجس (Arabic)
  • George  جورج (Arabic/English/Romanian)
  • Khodor  خضر (Arabic)
  • Chorche (Aragonese)
  • Gev(or) Գեվ Գեվոր (Armenian)
  • Gevorg Գեվորգ (Armenian)
  • Kevork Գեւորգ (Armenian)
  • Xurde (Asturian)
  • Gorka (Basque)
  • Jury Юры (Belarusian)
  • Yegor Егор (Belarusian/Russian)
  • Jord (Breton)
  • Jorj (Breton)
  • Georgi Георги (Bulgarian)
  • Jordi (Catalan)
  • Juraj (Croatian/Slovak/Slovene)
  • Jurica (Croatian)
  • Jure (Croatian/Slovene)
  • Jiří (Czech)
  • Jørgen (Danish/Norwegian)
  • Joris (Dutch/Frisian)
  • Sjors (Dutch)
  • Georg (Faroese/Estonian/German/Icelandic/Romansch/Scandinavian)
  • Jurjen (Frisian)
  • Jüri (Estonian/Volapuk)
  • Jørundur (Faroese)
  • Jokora (Finnish)
  • Jori (Finnish)
  • Jyr(k)i (Finnish)
  • Yrjänä (Finnish)
  • Yrjö (Finnish)
  • Georges (French)
  • Xurxo (Galician)
  • Giorgi გიორგი (Georgian/Monegasque)
  • Jörgen (German/Swedish)
  • Jörg (German/Swedish)
  • Jürgen (German)
  • Jürg (German)
  • Georgios Γεώργιος (Greek)
  • Joorut (Greenlandic)
  • Juulut (Greenlandic)
  • Keoki (Hawaiian)
  • György (Hungarian)
  • Seoirse (Irish-Gaelic)
  • Giorgio (Italian/Venetian)
  • Georgius (Latin)
  • Jur(g)is (Latvian)
  • Jurgis (Lithuanian)
  • Gjoko  Ѓок (Macedonian)
  • Gjorgje Ѓорѓе (Macedonian)
  • Gjorgji  Ѓорѓи (Macedonian)
  • Gheevargees ഗീവര്‍ഗീസ് (  (Malayalam)
  • Gheevarugees ഗീവറുഗീസ് ( (Malayalam)
  • Varghees വര്‍ഗീസ്‌ (Malayalam)
  • Verghese വെര്‍ഗീസ് (Malayalam)
  • Varughese വറുഗീസ് (Malayalam)
  • Ġorġ (Maltese)
  • Jore (Norman)
  • Jørn (Norwegian)
  • Ørjan (Norwegian)
  • Jordi (Occitanian/Provençal)
  • Jerzy (Polish)
  • Jorge (Portuguese/Spanish)
  • Gheorghe (Romanian)
  • Georgy Георгий (Russian/Ukrainian)
  • Yuri Юрий (Russian)
  • Deòrsa (Scottish)
  • Seòrsa (Scottish)
  • Đorđe Ђорђе (Serbian)
  • Đorđo Ђорђо (Serbian)
  • Đurađ Ђурађ(Serbian)
  • Jurij (Slovene)
  • Göran (Swedish)
  • Örjan (Swedish)
  • Gewarges ܓܝܘܪܓܣ(Syriac)
  • Gorges ܓܪܓܣ (Syriac)
  • Yorgo (Turkish)
  • Heorhiy Георгій (Ukrainian)
  • Yur Юр (Ukrainian)
  • Sior (Welsh)
In ancient Greece, Georgos may have also been used as an epithet for Zeus.
As for its feminine forms, I shall save that for a separate post 🙂

Ida

Gender: Feminine
Origin: German
Meaning: “labour; work.”
Eng (I-dah); Germ/Swe (EE-da)

The name is derived from the Germanic element, id, meaning “work; labour.”

The name was introduced into England by the Normans and fell out of usage by the late Middle Ages. It experienced a revival during the 19th-century, possibly due to the heroin of the Lord Tennyson poem, The Princess (1847); which was later adapted into a play entitled Princess Ida.

The name could also, likewise, be related to the Greek female name, which is found in Greek Mythology as the name of a nymph who nursed Zeus. Mount Ida on Crete is supposedly named after her.

In Hinduism it is the name of an earth goddess.

The name does not appear in the U.S. top 1000, the highest she has ranked in U.S. naming history was between 1880-1882, where she consecutively came in as the 7th most popular female name. She is, however, the 2nd most popular female name in Denmark, (2010). Her rankings in other countries are as follows:

  • # 7 (Norway, 2010)
  • # 8 (Iida, Finland, 2010)
  • # 17 (Sweden, 2010)

The name was borne by St. Ida of Lorraine (1040-1115); Russian ballerina, Ida Rubenstein (1885-1960); First Lady Ida Saxton McKinley (1847-1907); African-American Journalist and Early Civil Rights Activist, Ida B. Wells (1862-1931).

Ida is used across Europe, and rarely deviates from the original form. In Finnish she is rendered as Iida, and there is a very archaic Polish form of Hida, no longer in usage.

The designated name-days are: February 16 (Slovakia); March 14 (Czech Republic); September 4 (Germany, Norway, Poland); September 14 (Finland/Sweden).

Source

  1. http://www.behindthename.com/name/ida

Arthur

Gender: Masculine
Origin: Debated
Meaning: Debated
Eng (ARE-ther)

The name is of debated origin and meaning. Several theories have been attributed to the name’s origins, one is that it is derived from an obscure Roman cognomen, Artorius, which is believed to be of Etruscan origins of unknown meaning. Another theory is that it is derived from an ancient Brittonic name, *Arto-rīg-ios , meaning “bear-king.” An even less likely alternative is that it is connected with Welsh Artgwr (bear-man). A newer and yet unlikely suggestion is that it is related to the Greek Arcturus,  that is, the name of the brightest star in the Constellation Boötes, meaning “bear guardian.”

The name was borne by a mythical British king who is the topic of several medieval romances. His existence has never been proven, yet his legacy has left an indelible mark in Western Europe, especially in England and France. The name’s usage among the general populous can be traced all the way Medieval England. It surged in popularity in the 19th-century when English Romanticism had become popular.

As of 2008, Arthur was the 6th most popular male name in Belgium. His rankings in other countries are as follows:

  • # 4 (Brazil, 2010)
  • # 10 (Arturs, Latvia, 2010)
  • # 15 (France, 2009)
  • # 23 (Arttu, Finland, 2010)
  • # 82 (England/Wales, 2010)
  • # 99 (Arturo, Spain, 2010)
  • # 288 (Netherlands, 2010)
  • # 389 (United States, 2010)
  • # 420 (Arturo, United States, 2010)

Other forms of the name include:

  • Artur Артур Արթուր (Albanian/Armenian/Basque/Belarusian/Bosnian/Bulgarian/Catalan/Croatian/Czech/Estonian/Galician/German/Kazakh/Picard/Polish/Portuguese/Romanian/Romansch/Russian/Serbian/Slovak/Slovene/Ukrainian)
  • Dury (Alsatian)
  • Arturu (Asturian/Maltese)
  • Artús (Asturian/Catalan)
  • Artza (Basque)
  • Arzhur (Breton)
  • Artuš (Czech/Slovak)
  • Arthur (Dutch/English/Flemish/French/German/Scandinavian/Welsh)
  • Arto (Finnish)
  • Arttu (Finnish)
  • Artturi (Finnish)
  • Atte (Frisian)
  • Arturo (Galician/Italian/Spanish)
  • Arthoúros Αρθούρος (Greek)
  • Artúr (Hungarian/Icelandic/Irish)
  • Artù (Italian)
  • Arturi ართური (Georgian)
  • Arturs (Latvian)
  • Artūras (Lithuanian)
  • Turu (Maltese)
  • Èrthu (Norman)
  • Artús (Occitanian)
  • Artair (Scottish)
Diminutives include:
  • Arturek (Czech/Polish)
  • Tuur (Dutch)
  • Art (English)
  • Artie (English)

Feminine forms include the Italian: Artura and Arturina

Anna, Anne

Gender: Feminine
Origin: Biblical Hebrew
Meaning: “grace.”
(ANN; AHN). (ANN-uh; AHN-nah). (HANN-uh; HAHN-nah)

Anne is possibly one of the quintessential classic English and French female names. Prior to the 18th-century, it seems that every other girl born in England was either named Anne, Jane or Mary. There were several British and French queens who bore this simplistic moniker, including the ill fated Anne Boleyn, the mother of Elizabeth I. The history of Anne is rather long and complicated.

It was foremost popularized through the cult of St. Anne, a legendary figure who was said to be the mother of the Virgin Mary and the grandmother of Christ.

In Brittany, the name became especially popular because it happened to coincide with the name of an ancient Celtic goddess, her cult being replaced by St. Anne’s. In fact, it was borne by one Breton Princess, Anne of Brittany.

The name was introduced into Britain by the French-Normans after the invasion in 1066. Previously, there had been a minor Saxon king named Anna, but in this case the name is related to the Saxon arn (eagle). Anna and Anne are still occasionally used as male given names in Friesland.

Other than the apocryphal saint, the name Anne can be traced directly back to the Bible. In the New Testament, it is the name of a prophetess who predicts the Crucifixion of Christ.

Anna (Αννα), is the Greek translation of the early Hebrew Channah חַנָּה, usually transliterated as Hannah, meaning “grace.”

Hannah is borne in the Old Testament by the faithful mother of the prophet, Samuel.

Hannah has always been popular among Jewish families, but was virtually unheard of among non-Jews before the Reformation, except in some cases where it may have been used as a diminutive form of Johanna, spelled Hanna.

It was the Byzantines who had introduced the Anna form to the world, making it popular throughout Eastern and Southern Europe. It was a very popular name among the Byzantine royal family and it was borne by the majestic Anna of Byzantium.

Anna may be the more melodic form of the bunch, but Anne’s minimalistic qualities are charming. Short, to the point, no frills. It’s not a bad name, though it does lack some spice, which is why parents are probably more attracted to its more exotic alternatives. In fact, Anne only comes in at # 608 in the top 1000 female names of the United States. It is safe to say, however, that she is very much loved in the middle name spot.

Anna is currently one of the most popular female names in Europe and abroad. Her rankings are as follows:

  • # 1 (Austria, 2010)
  • # 1 (Estonia, 2011)
  • # 2 (Hungary, 2010)
  • # 3 (Ana, Georgia, 2010)
  • # 3 (Iceland, 2010)
  • # 4 (Ana, Croatia, 2010)
  • # 4 (Czech Republic, 2010)
  • # 4 (Germany, 2011)
  • # 4 (Ukraine, 2010)
  • # 5 (Faroe Islands, 2010)
  • # 5 (Ana, Portugal, 2010)
  • # 6 (Armenia, 2010)
  • # 6 (Ane, Greenland, 2002-2003)
  • # 6 (Ana, Romania, 2009)
  • # 6 (Ana, Serbia, 2010)
  • # 7 (Latvia, 2011)
  • # 7 (Russia, 2011)
  • # 8 (German-speaking Switzerland, 2010)
  • # 9 (Denmark, 2011)
  • # 10 (Netherlands, 2010)
  • # 10 (Northern Ireland, 2010)
  • # 10 (Norway, 2010)
  • # 11 (Italy, 2010)
  • # 12 (Ireland, 2010)
  • # 14 (Poland, 2010)
  • # 16 (Catalonia, 2010)
  • # 26 (Canada, B.C., 2010)
  • # 28 (Italian-speaking Switzerland, 2010)
  • # 28 (United States, 2010)
  • # 29 (Scotland, 2010)
  • # 40 (France, 2009)
  • # 46 (French-speaking Switzerland, 2010)
  • # 53 (Belgium, 2009)
  • # 63 (England/Wales, 2010)
  • # 71 (Australia, 2010)
  • # 81 (Sweden, 2010)
  • # 83 (Spain, 2010)
Other forms of the name include:
  • Anneen (Afrikaans/Low German)
  • Anna Анна (Afrikaans/Albanian/Armenian/Breton/Bulgarian/Catalan/Corsican/Czech/Dutch/English/Estonian/Faroese/Finnish/French/Frisian/German/Greek/Hungarian/Icelandic/Italian/Latvian/Limburgish/Maltese/Polish/Russian/Ukrainian/Scandinavian/Slovak)
  • Anne (Basque/Dutch/English/French/Scandinavian)
  • Gánna Га́нна (Belarusian)
  • Annaig (Breton)
  • Annick (Breton)
  • Maina (Breton)
  • Mannaig (Breton)
  • Mannick (Breton)
  • Naig (Breton)
  • Ana Ана ანა (Bulgarian/Croatian/Galician/Georgian/Lombard/Macedonian/Portuguese/Romanian/Samogaitian/Serbian/Slovene/Spanish/Venetian)
  • Jana (Croatian/Ladino)
  • Aneta (Czech/Polish/Samogaitian/Slovak)
  • Aina (Catalan)
  • Anica (Croatian/Serbian/Slovene)
  • Ane (Danish)
  • Anika (Danish)
  • Anneke (Dutch)
  • Anneken (Dutch)
  • Annika (Dutch/Finnish/German/Latvian/Scandinavian)
  • Anka (Dutch/Frisian/German)
  • An(n)ke (Dutch/Frisian)
  • Anouk (Dutch/French)
  • Ans (Dutch)
  • Enneke (Dutch)
  • Enneken (Dutch)
  • Anita (English/German/Polish/Spanish)
  • Annette (English/French/German)
  • Anissa (English)
  • Annelle/Annella (Estonian)
  • Anete (Estonian/Latvian)
  • Anett (Estonian)
  • Anu (Estonian)
  • Anni (Finnish)
  • Annikki (Finnish)
  • Anniina (Finnish)
  • Annukka (Finnish)
  • Niina (Finnish)
  • Anaïs (French/Provençal)
  • Annouche (French)
  • Ninette (French)
  • Ninon (French)
  • Ninouk (French)
  • Anje (Frisian)
  • Ankea (Frisian)
  • Antje (Frisian)
  • Antjen (Frisian)
  • Anute (Fruilian)
  • Anano (Georgian)
  • Annchen (German)
  • Annel (German)
  • Annele (German/Latvian)
  • Anneli(e) (German/Finnish/Swedish)
  • Annet (German)
  • Anina (German)
  • Anja (German/Slovene)
  • Anouschka (German/Italian/Russian)
  • Annaki (Greek)
  • Annoula (Greek)
  • Noula (Greek)
  • Anikó (Hungarian)
  • Annuska (Hungarian)
  • Panni (Hungarian)
  • Áine (Irish)
  • Ánna (Irish)
  • Annarella (Italian)
  • Annella (Italian)
  • Annetta (Italian)
  • Annettina (Italian)
  • Nona (Italian/Romansch)
  • Ance (Latvian)
  • Annija (Latvian)
  • Anninya (Latvian)
  • Ona (Lithuanian)
  • Annamma (Malayalam)
  • Annam (Malayalam)
  • Onnee (Manx)
  • Âone (Norman)
  • Aenna/Aenne (Old High German)
  • Annehe (Old High German)
  • Änna/Änne (Old High German)
  • Neta (Piedmontese)
  • Noto (Piedmontese)
  • Anke (Plattdeutsch)
  • Anneke(n) (Plattdeutsch)
  • Analia (Romansch/Spanish)
  • Annina (Romansch)
  • Annotta (Romansch)
  • Anca (Romanian)
  • Anicuta (Romanian)
  • Anėta (Samogaitian)
  • Anėkė (Samogaitian)
  • Annag (Scottish)
  • Ghianna (Sicilian)
  • Janna (Sicilian)
  • Nanna (Sicilian)
  • Anniken (Swedish)
  • Ann (Welsh)
  • Nan (Welsh)
  • Nanno (Welsh)
  • Nanw (Welsh)
  • Aana (Wolof)
As for the Hannah forms

Hanna without an H is the prefered form on Continental Europe, usually pronounced (HAHN-nah) and in French like Anna. Hanna and Hanne (HAHN-neh) are also used as diminutive forms of Johanna/Johanne in the Netherlands, Sweden, Norway, Denmark and Germany. There is the Hungarian Hajna pronounced (HOY-no). The Czech/Slovak form of Hana nickname Hanka. There are the Yiddish forms of Heyna, Hayna, Hejna (all pronounced like HAY-nah) including the diminutive forms of HenaHende, Hendel and Henye.  The Polish diminutive form of Hania, which might make an interesting alternative to Anya or Hannah. Hannah, Hanna and Henna are all used in the Middle East.

Of course, how could we ever forget the popular diminutive forms of Annie and Nan.