Anna, Anne

Gender: Feminine
Origin: Biblical Hebrew
Meaning: “grace.”
(ANN; AHN). (ANN-uh; AHN-nah). (HANN-uh; HAHN-nah)

Anne is possibly one of the quintessential classic English and French female names. Prior to the 18th-century, it seems that every other girl born in England was either named Anne, Jane or Mary. There were several British and French queens who bore this simplistic moniker, including the ill fated Anne Boleyn, the mother of Elizabeth I. The history of Anne is rather long and complicated.

It was foremost popularized through the cult of St. Anne, a legendary figure who was said to be the mother of the Virgin Mary and the grandmother of Christ.

In Brittany, the name became especially popular because it happened to coincide with the name of an ancient Celtic goddess, her cult being replaced by St. Anne’s. In fact, it was borne by one Breton Princess, Anne of Brittany.

The name was introduced into Britain by the French-Normans after the invasion in 1066. Previously, there had been a minor Saxon king named Anna, but in this case the name is related to the Saxon arn (eagle). Anna and Anne are still occasionally used as male given names in Friesland.

Other than the apocryphal saint, the name Anne can be traced directly back to the Bible. In the New Testament, it is the name of a prophetess who predicts the Crucifixion of Christ.

Anna (Αννα), is the Greek translation of the early Hebrew Channah חַנָּה, usually transliterated as Hannah, meaning “grace.”

Hannah is borne in the Old Testament by the faithful mother of the prophet, Samuel.

Hannah has always been popular among Jewish families, but was virtually unheard of among non-Jews before the Reformation, except in some cases where it may have been used as a diminutive form of Johanna, spelled Hanna.

It was the Byzantines who had introduced the Anna form to the world, making it popular throughout Eastern and Southern Europe. It was a very popular name among the Byzantine royal family and it was borne by the majestic Anna of Byzantium.

Anna may be the more melodic form of the bunch, but Anne’s minimalistic qualities are charming. Short, to the point, no frills. It’s not a bad name, though it does lack some spice, which is why parents are probably more attracted to its more exotic alternatives. In fact, Anne only comes in at # 608 in the top 1000 female names of the United States. It is safe to say, however, that she is very much loved in the middle name spot.

Anna is currently one of the most popular female names in Europe and abroad. Her rankings are as follows:

  • # 1 (Austria, 2010)
  • # 1 (Estonia, 2011)
  • # 2 (Hungary, 2010)
  • # 3 (Ana, Georgia, 2010)
  • # 3 (Iceland, 2010)
  • # 4 (Ana, Croatia, 2010)
  • # 4 (Czech Republic, 2010)
  • # 4 (Germany, 2011)
  • # 4 (Ukraine, 2010)
  • # 5 (Faroe Islands, 2010)
  • # 5 (Ana, Portugal, 2010)
  • # 6 (Armenia, 2010)
  • # 6 (Ane, Greenland, 2002-2003)
  • # 6 (Ana, Romania, 2009)
  • # 6 (Ana, Serbia, 2010)
  • # 7 (Latvia, 2011)
  • # 7 (Russia, 2011)
  • # 8 (German-speaking Switzerland, 2010)
  • # 9 (Denmark, 2011)
  • # 10 (Netherlands, 2010)
  • # 10 (Northern Ireland, 2010)
  • # 10 (Norway, 2010)
  • # 11 (Italy, 2010)
  • # 12 (Ireland, 2010)
  • # 14 (Poland, 2010)
  • # 16 (Catalonia, 2010)
  • # 26 (Canada, B.C., 2010)
  • # 28 (Italian-speaking Switzerland, 2010)
  • # 28 (United States, 2010)
  • # 29 (Scotland, 2010)
  • # 40 (France, 2009)
  • # 46 (French-speaking Switzerland, 2010)
  • # 53 (Belgium, 2009)
  • # 63 (England/Wales, 2010)
  • # 71 (Australia, 2010)
  • # 81 (Sweden, 2010)
  • # 83 (Spain, 2010)
Other forms of the name include:
  • Anneen (Afrikaans/Low German)
  • Anna Анна (Afrikaans/Albanian/Armenian/Breton/Bulgarian/Catalan/Corsican/Czech/Dutch/English/Estonian/Faroese/Finnish/French/Frisian/German/Greek/Hungarian/Icelandic/Italian/Latvian/Limburgish/Maltese/Polish/Russian/Ukrainian/Scandinavian/Slovak)
  • Anne (Basque/Dutch/English/French/Scandinavian)
  • Gánna Га́нна (Belarusian)
  • Annaig (Breton)
  • Annick (Breton)
  • Maina (Breton)
  • Mannaig (Breton)
  • Mannick (Breton)
  • Naig (Breton)
  • Ana Ана ანა (Bulgarian/Croatian/Galician/Georgian/Lombard/Macedonian/Portuguese/Romanian/Samogaitian/Serbian/Slovene/Spanish/Venetian)
  • Jana (Croatian/Ladino)
  • Aneta (Czech/Polish/Samogaitian/Slovak)
  • Aina (Catalan)
  • Anica (Croatian/Serbian/Slovene)
  • Ane (Danish)
  • Anika (Danish)
  • Anneke (Dutch)
  • Anneken (Dutch)
  • Annika (Dutch/Finnish/German/Latvian/Scandinavian)
  • Anka (Dutch/Frisian/German)
  • An(n)ke (Dutch/Frisian)
  • Anouk (Dutch/French)
  • Ans (Dutch)
  • Enneke (Dutch)
  • Enneken (Dutch)
  • Anita (English/German/Polish/Spanish)
  • Annette (English/French/German)
  • Anissa (English)
  • Annelle/Annella (Estonian)
  • Anete (Estonian/Latvian)
  • Anett (Estonian)
  • Anu (Estonian)
  • Anni (Finnish)
  • Annikki (Finnish)
  • Anniina (Finnish)
  • Annukka (Finnish)
  • Niina (Finnish)
  • Anaïs (French/Provençal)
  • Annouche (French)
  • Ninette (French)
  • Ninon (French)
  • Ninouk (French)
  • Anje (Frisian)
  • Ankea (Frisian)
  • Antje (Frisian)
  • Antjen (Frisian)
  • Anute (Fruilian)
  • Anano (Georgian)
  • Annchen (German)
  • Annel (German)
  • Annele (German/Latvian)
  • Anneli(e) (German/Finnish/Swedish)
  • Annet (German)
  • Anina (German)
  • Anja (German/Slovene)
  • Anouschka (German/Italian/Russian)
  • Annaki (Greek)
  • Annoula (Greek)
  • Noula (Greek)
  • Anikó (Hungarian)
  • Annuska (Hungarian)
  • Panni (Hungarian)
  • Áine (Irish)
  • Ánna (Irish)
  • Annarella (Italian)
  • Annella (Italian)
  • Annetta (Italian)
  • Annettina (Italian)
  • Nona (Italian/Romansch)
  • Ance (Latvian)
  • Annija (Latvian)
  • Anninya (Latvian)
  • Ona (Lithuanian)
  • Annamma (Malayalam)
  • Annam (Malayalam)
  • Onnee (Manx)
  • Âone (Norman)
  • Aenna/Aenne (Old High German)
  • Annehe (Old High German)
  • Änna/Änne (Old High German)
  • Neta (Piedmontese)
  • Noto (Piedmontese)
  • Anke (Plattdeutsch)
  • Anneke(n) (Plattdeutsch)
  • Analia (Romansch/Spanish)
  • Annina (Romansch)
  • Annotta (Romansch)
  • Anca (Romanian)
  • Anicuta (Romanian)
  • Anėta (Samogaitian)
  • Anėkė (Samogaitian)
  • Annag (Scottish)
  • Ghianna (Sicilian)
  • Janna (Sicilian)
  • Nanna (Sicilian)
  • Anniken (Swedish)
  • Ann (Welsh)
  • Nan (Welsh)
  • Nanno (Welsh)
  • Nanw (Welsh)
  • Aana (Wolof)
As for the Hannah forms

Hanna without an H is the prefered form on Continental Europe, usually pronounced (HAHN-nah) and in French like Anna. Hanna and Hanne (HAHN-neh) are also used as diminutive forms of Johanna/Johanne in the Netherlands, Sweden, Norway, Denmark and Germany. There is the Hungarian Hajna pronounced (HOY-no). The Czech/Slovak form of Hana nickname Hanka. There are the Yiddish forms of Heyna, Hayna, Hejna (all pronounced like HAY-nah) including the diminutive forms of HenaHende, Hendel and Henye.  The Polish diminutive form of Hania, which might make an interesting alternative to Anya or Hannah. Hannah, Hanna and Henna are all used in the Middle East.

Of course, how could we ever forget the popular diminutive forms of Annie and Nan.

Anthony, Antonia

Origin: Latin
Meaning: unknown

The masculine English name, Anthony, is currently the 7th most popular male name in the United States.

The name is derived from a Roman family name, Antonius, which is of speculated origins, it is suspected to be of Etruscan heritage and it was borne by Marcus Antonius, (Marc Antony), who ruled the Roman Empire jointly with Caesar Augustus during the 1st-century B.C.E. His romance with Cleopatra is retold in Shakespeare’s tragedy, Antony and Cleopatra (1606).

The name was popularized in the Christian world due to the cult of St. Anthony the Great, an Egyptian hermit from the 3rd-century C.E. He is mostly noted for his establishment of Christian monasticism, another famous saint is Anthony of Padua, a 13th-century saint, who is known as the patron saint of Portugal and of lost items.

Originally, Antony was the more common form used in the English speaking world, and still is, to a certain extent, in the United Kingdom. The original English pronunciation was AN-tuh-nee, but AN-thuh-nee can also be heard in certain areas of the United States, particularly in the Midwest.

The lowest that Anthony has ranked in United States naming history was in 1885 when he came in as the 105th most popular male name.

His ranking in other countries is as follows:

  • # 48 (Australia, 2007)
  • # 33 Antoine (Belgium, 2006)
  • # 55 (Canada, B.C., 2008)
  • # 16 Antoine (France, 2006)
  • # 70 (France, 2006)
  • # 74 Antonin (France, 2006)
  • # 71 (Ireland, 2007)
  • # 312 (the Netherlands, 2008)
  • # 22 (Spain, 2006)

Its continental form of Anton, has always been a popular choice throughout Northern and Central Europe, in the United States, he is currently the 832nd most popular male name-2008, the highest he ever ranked in U.S. naming history was in 1885 coming in as the 175th most popular male name.

In other countries, his rankings are as follows:

  • # 4 (Finland, among Swedish-speakers, 2007)
  • # 11 (Sweden, 2007)

The feminine form of Antonia, currently does not rank in the U.S. top 1000, she is currently the 5th most popular female name in Chile-2008.

In the Netherlands, its diminutive form of Teun is currently the 36th most popular male name (2008).

Other forms of Anthony include:

  • Antón (Aragonese)
  • Antoniu (Asturian/Romanian/Sicilian)
  • Andoni (Basque)
  • Antolin (Basque)
  • Antton (Basque)
  • Anteng (Bavarian)
  • Dane (Bavarian: not to be confused with the English name Dane, this is pronounced: DAH-neh)
  • Anton Антон ანტონ(Breton/Bulgarian/Dutch/Estonian/Georgian/German/Maltese/Romanian/Russian/Scandinavian/Slovene/Ukrainian)
  • Antoun (Breton)
  • Andon Андон (Bulgarian/Albanian)
  • Antonij Антоний (Bulgarian)
  • Antoni (Catalan/Polish/Romansch: in Catalan, Tonet is the diminutive form. In Polish, the pet form is Antek)
  • Antone (Corsican: Antó is the diminutive form)
  • Ante/Anto (Croatian)
  • Antun (Croatian)
  • Antonín (Czech)
  • Anthonie/Antonie (Dutch)
  • Antheunis/Anthonis (Dutch)
  • Antonius (Dutch/Latin)
  • Antoon (Dutch)
  • Teun (Dutch: originally a diminutive form, now used as an independent given name).
  • Teunis/Theunis (Dutch: originally a diminutive form, now used exclusively as an independent given name)
  • Ton (Dutch/Limburgish)
  • Anteneh (Est0nian)
  • Tõnis (Estonian: originally a diminutive form, also used as an independent given name)
  • Anttoni (Finnish)
  • Antoine (French)
  • Antonin (French/Romansch)
  • Tinus (Frisian)
  • Antain/Antaine/Antoin/Antóin (Gaelic-Irish)
  • Antônios Αντώνιος/Antónis Αντώνης (Greek: modern)
  • Akoni/Anakoni (Hawaiian)
  • Antal (Hungarian)
  • Antoníus (Icelandic)
  • Totono (Indonesian)
  • Antonello (Italian)
  • Antonetto/Antonietto (Italian: obscure archaic diminutive form that was used as an independent given name)
  • Antoniano (Italian)
  • Antonico (Italian)
  • Antonillo (Italian)
  • Antonino (Italian: Nino is the common diminutive form)
  • Antoniuccio/Antonuccio (Italian: archaic form)
  • Antoniusso (Italian: archaic form)
  • Antuono (Italian: archaic, possibly a corruption of the French Antoine)
  • Antoninus (Latin)
  • Antons (Latvian)
  • Tun/Tunnes (Lexumburgish)
  • Antanas (Lithuanian: more common form)
  • Antonijus (Lithuanian)
  • Tonìn (Neopolitan)
  • Tonik (Norwegian: obscure form)
  • Titoan/Titouan (Occitanian/Provençal)
  • Tönnies, Tüns (Plattdeutsch)
  • Antoniusz (Polish: obscure form)
  • António (Portuguese: European)
  • Antônio (Portuguese: Brazilian)
  • Tonnies/Tünnes (Ripoarisch)
  • Antieni (Romansch)
  • Antòni (Sardinian/Occitanian: diminutive form is Tottoi)
  • Antonije Антоније (Serbian)
  • ‘Ntonio (Sicilian)
  • Antonio (Spanish/Italian: Toño and Tonito are the Spanish diminutive forms)
  • Done (Swabian)
  • Antümi (Turkish)
  • Antonij Антоній (Ukrainian)

Various feminine forms include:

  • Antònia (Catalan)
  • Antonieta (Catalan)
  • Antonija Антонија (Croatian/Serbian/Slovene)
  • Antonína (Czech/Slovak)
  • Antonie (Czech: ahn-TONE-yeh)
  • Antonia (Dutch/Italian/Polish/Romansch/Slovene/Spanish)
  • Tonneke (Dutch)
  • Antonie (French)
  • Antonine/Tonine (French: Tonine was originally a diminutive form and is now occasionally used as an independent given name)
  • Antoinette (French/Dutch)
  • Toinette (French: originally a diminutive form, now used as an independent given name)
  • Toinon (French: originally a diminutive form, occasionally used as a diminutive form)
  • Antía (Galician)
  • Antonella (Italian)
  • Antonetta/Antonietta (Italian)
  • Antonica (Italian)
  • Antonilla (Italian)
  • Antonina Антонина (Italian/Polish/Russian: Tosia is the Polish diminutive form and Nina is the Italian diminutive form)
  • Antonita (Italian/Spanish: originally a pet form, now used as an independent given name)
  • Titoana/Titouane (Occitanian/Gascon/Provençal)
  • Antónia (Portuguese/Bearnais/Hungarian/Slovak)
  • Tonia (Romansch)
  • Tonka (Slovene: originally a diminutive form, used as an independent given name)

A common English diminutive form for both the masculine and the feminine is Tony, in French, common diminutive forms are Toine, Toinou and Togne, for males.

Italian feminine diminutive forms are: Tonia, Tonina, Tona, NinaNinetta and Ninuccia. Italian masculine diminutives are: Tonio, Tonello, Tonino, Tonuccio, Nino, Ninuccio, Totò, Toni and Tony.

Italian combined forms are Antonmaria, Antoniomaria and Antonangelo.

Éponine

Gender: Female
Origin: French
Meaning “great mare.”
Pronunciation French (AY-po-NEEN); English (EP-eh-NEEN)

The name is derived from the name of the Ancient Gaulic goddess, Epona.

A goddess associated with fertility, Epona was known as the patroness of horses, donkeys, and mules. She was the only Celtic diety whose worship became popular among Romans, who delegated her as protectress and controller of calvary and chariots. Remnants of her devotion are found all throughout central Europe. One famous artifact is an inscription written by a Syrian, which goes as follows

Eponina ‘dear little Epona’: she is Atanta, horse-goddess Potia ‘powerful Mistress’, Dibonia, Catona ‘of battle’, noble and good Vovesia.” (1st-Century BC). Rom, Dieux-Sievres, France.

Along with the inscription were found remnants of a cauldron and a sacrificed horse.

Though a popular minor divinity among the Romans, it is now believed that the Celts revered her as a powerful, central figure to their religion. Her story as told by the Celts, is lost to history, but Plutach came up with an interesting allegory regarding the goddess’ beginnings:

reports out of Agesilaus, his third book of Italian matters, that Fulvius Stella loathing the company of a woman, coupled himself with a mare, of whom he begot a very beautiful maiden-child, and she was called by a fit name, Epona…

The name Epona is derived from the Gaulic elements of ekwos, meaning “horse.” Equus is thought to be derived from this, and the term pony is said to be derived from the goddess’ name.

Eponina was an endearing latinized form used to invoke the goddess by devotees.

The horse was a central figure to ancient Celtic religions. There are carvings and paintings of horses found throughout France and the British Isles, thought to have been made by the Celts.

The famed chalk horse of Uffington, England has been associated with an Epona-like diety by scholars and archeologists. It is believed that Epona is related to the Welsh horse goddess, Rhiannon.

In more recent history, Éponine was used by Victor Hugo for his 1862 novel Les Miserables.

Variations of this name include the more pure and ancient form of Epona, the more latinate form of Eponina, and the sweetly feminine and romantic French form of Éponine.

The most popular French nickname for this is Ponette which also happens to be a French term used for a young, female pony.

Ponette was the name of the title character of the 1996 French film by Jacques Doillon.

Other nicknames include, Eppie, Pony, Poe, Nina, & Ninette.