Nectar, Nectaire, Nectarius, Nectaria

  • Origin: Greek
  • Meaning: “nectar.”

Nectar is the English form of the Greek Nektarios Νεκτάριος, which is derived from νέκταρ (nektar), meaning “nectar, the drink of the gods. Nectar is not a name that has ever been in common use in the English-speaking world, but since it is the name of several Eastern and Western Christian saints, the proper English male translation of the name would be Nectar; or it would have appeared thus in the calendar.

It was borne by St. Nectaire of Auvergne, a 4th-century Christian missionary to the Gauls in what is now the Massif Central region of France. According to Gregory of Tours, he was sent by Pope Fabian, along with his brothers, where he transformed a temple that was dedicated to Apollo on Mont Cornadore into a cathedral that still stands, and was subsequently beheaded by the local Gaulic chieftain. The commune of Saint-Nectaire in the Puy-de-Dôme department of France gets its name from him, as does the cheese of the same name; or the latter technically comes from the Marshal of Senneterre, which is a linguistic corruption of Saint-Nectaire.

Male forms include:

  • Nektarij, Nektary Нектарий (Bulgarian, Russian, Ukrainian)
  • Nectari (Catalan)
  • Nektarious (Coptic)
  • Nectarije (Croatian-Serbian)
  • Nectar (English)
  • Nectaire (French)
  • Nektari ნეკტარი (Georgian)
  • Nektarios Νεκτάριος (Greek)
  • Nettario (Italian)
  • Nectareus, Nectarius (Late Latin)
  • Nektārijs (Latvian)
  • Nektariusz (Polish)
  • Nectário (Portuguese)
  • Nectarie (Romanian)
  • Nectario (Spanish)

Feminine forms include

  • Nektaria, Nektarija Νεκταρία Nექთარიჯა Нектария (Coptic, Bulgarian, Georgian, Greek, Polish, Russian, Serbo-Croatian, Ukrainian)
  • Nectarie (French)
  • Nettaria (Italian)
  • Nectaria (Latin, Romanian, Spanish)
  • Nectária (Portuguese)

A modern male Greek diminutive form is Nektary and the Russian diminutive form for both the male and female form is Nechka.

Sources

Lieba, Liba, Lieber

Liba can have a few meanings, it is firstly a polonized form of the Yiddish ליבאַ Lieba (love), which is identical to the German word. It may have also been influenced by the Czech word libý (nice; pleasant). It was popular among Eastern-European Jews as it also coincided with the Czech-Slovak name Líba, which is a contracted form of names like Libuše & Liběna.

Also sometimes spelled Liebe.

It was sometimes anglicized by Jewish immigrants to Leeba.

A Yiddish masculine form is Liber or Lieber.

In Latvia, the designated name-day is April 19, though in this case, it is probably a borrowing from the Czech & Slovak use.

Sources

Daeira, Daira

download (8)


Daeira Δαιρα is Greek and is derived from the Greek δαο (dao), meaning “the knowing one; the teacher.” It was the name of an Oceanid nymph who was said to be the mother of Eleusis. She may have originally been a fertility goddess who was associated with the Eleusian mysteries. The name was also sometimes used as an epithet for Persephone, Aphrodite and Hera. Daira is the Latin translation and it has come into recent popular use in Latin America. It is also used in Latvia, but in this case it is not known if it is of Latvian origins or a borrowing from the same above Greek Source.


Sources

Zbigniew

220px-Zbigniew

Zbigniew of Poland


  • Origin: Polish
  • Meaning: “to dispel anger.”
  • Gender: masculine
  • (ZBEEK-nyef)

The name is composed of the Polish elements, zbyć, zbyć się, pozbyć się (to dispel) and gniew (anger).

This has been a common Polish male name since Medieval Times, it was borne by Zbigniew, High Duke of Poland (1102-1107); Polish poet, Zbigniew Herbert (1924-1998); and a notable American bearer was American political strategist, Zbigniew Brzeziński (1927-2017).

Common Polish diminutive forms are Zbyszek and Zbyś.

Its designated name-days are February 17, March 17, April 1, June 16 or October 10.

Other forms include:

  • Zbignjew Збігнеў (Belorusian)
  • Zbygněv, Zbyhněv, Zbyněk (Czech)
  • Sbigné (French)
  • Sbinco, Zbinco (German, Latin)
  • Sbigneus (German, Latin)
  • Sbigneo (Italian, Portuguese, Spanish)
  • Zbigņevs (Latvian)
  • Zbygniew (Polish)
  • Zbignev Збигнев (Russian, Ukrainian)

A Czech and Polish Medieval feminine form is Zbincza (ZBEEN-chah).


Sources

Barnabas, Barnaby, Barney

180px-San_Barnaba


The name is borne by St. Barnabas, a companion of St. Paul who was instrumental in converting gentiles to the new Christian faith. St. Barnabas was believed to be a Cypriot Jew whose true name was Joseph but he is referred to as Barnabas in Acts 4:36, which describes the name to mean “son of consolation,” possibly being linked with the Aramaic בר נחמה, bar neḥmā of the same meaning. Many linguists contradict this meaning and claim that the latter part of the name might actually be derived from the Hebrew nabī נביא meaning “prophet.”

St. Barnabas is considered an early apostle and the founder of the Christian Church in Cyprus who was eventually stoned to death by an angry mob in Syria. He is considered the patron saint of Cyprus and his feast day is June 11th.

As a given-name, Barnaby has been the preferred form in England since medieval times. Its usage spread to the rest of the English-speaking world through colonialism. It spawned the diminutive off-shoot of Barney, which has been used as an independent given-name in its own right.

To millennials, Barney is often associated with the beloved purple dinosaur of their childhood. However, he appeared in the U.S. Top 1000 between 1880-1976. Never a huge hit, the highest he ever ranked in the U.S. Charts was #201 in 1887. He hasn’t been seen in the charts since 1976, but in England & Wales he currently ranks in as the #492nd Most Popular Males Name (2018).

Barnaby is currently the 251st Most Popular Male Name in England & Wales (2018). Whereas Barnabás is currently the 32nd Most Popular Male Name in Hungary (2018).


Other forms include:

  • Barnabana برنابا (Arabic, Persian)
  • Barnabas Բառնաբաս ബർണബാസ് (Armenian, Coptic, Dutch, English, Finnish, Frisian, German, Greek, Icelandic, Latvian, Lithuanian, Malayalam, Scandinavian, Syriac, Welsh)
  • Bernaba (Basque)
  • Varnáva Варна́ва (Bulgarian)
  • Bernabé (Catalan, Portuguese, Spanish)
  • Barnaba ბარნაბა (Croatian, Georgian, Italian, Polish, Romanian, Slovenian)
  • Barnabáš (Czech/Slovak)
  • Barnaby (English, Plattdeutsch)
  • Barnabé (French)
  • Balló (Hungarian)
  • Barna (Hungarian)
  • Barnabás (Hungarian)
  • Barnabà (Lombard)
  • Varnava Варнава (Macedonian, Serbian, Russian, Ukrainian)

An obscure Spanish feminine form is Bernabea.

Sources

Marcus, Mark

Il_Pordenone_-_San_Marco_-_Budapest


From one of the most common Roman praenomen, its origin and meaning is uncertain. A popular etymology is that it relates to Mars, others suggest it may be from the Etruscan Marce, which may come from mar (to harvest). It is said the name was originally bestowed on those who were born in March.

Marcellus and the name of the month of March likely shares the same etymological root.

It was borne by several notable Romans, including Mark Antony, Marcus Aurelius & Cicero.

It was the name of one of the Evangelists who authored the eponymous Gospel, known as St. Mark in the Christian world, he is revered as the founder of Christianity in Africa and is traditionally believed to have founded the Church in Alexandria. Coptic Christians hold him in high regard. His bones were smuggled out of Egypt in a barrel of pork fat by Venetian merchants from Alexandria when Egypt fell under Islamic rule and were transported back to Venice where they were eventually installed and dedicated in the Basilica of San Marco.

The name was borne by a 2nd-century pope as well.


Marcus, Mark and Marc have been quite popular in several countries. Marcus was in the U.S. Top 100 between 1970-2000, Sweden’s between 1998-2008, New Zealand’s between 2008-2014, England & Wales between 1996-2003, and in Denmark’s between 1994-2006. Currently, his rankings in other countries are as follows:

  • #54 (Canada, BC, 2018)
  • #87 (Australia, 2018)
  • #100 (Norway, 2018)
  • #209 (United States, 2018)
  • #213 (France, 2018)
  • #236 (England & Wales, 2018)
  • #406 (Netherlands, 2018)

Its latinate form of Marco, which started off as a mainly Italian form, became widespread across the continent. His rankings in the following countries are as follows:

  • #11 (Galicia, Spain, 2018)
  • #16 (Spain, 2018_
  • #23 (Italy, 2018)
  • #65 (Catalonia, Spain, 2018)
  • #81 (Portugal, 2018)
  • #358 (United States, 2018)
  • #436 (England & Wales, 2018)
  • #446 (France, 2018)

It’s English form of Mark appears in the legend of Tristan & Isolde as the name of the King of Cornwall, supposedly the name was not common in the English-speaking world until the 19th-century, but became a hit by the Mid-1900s. Mark appeared in the U.S. Top 100 between 1944-2002, which is quite a long stretch. Mark peaked the highest in popularity between 1955-1970, peaking at #6, six years in a row between 1959-1964.  Marks’s rankings in other countries are as follows:

  • #5 (Slovenia, 2018)
  • #6 (Moscow, Russia, 2018)
  • #21 (Hungary, 2018)
  • #83 (Ireland, 2018)
  • #210 (U.S., 2018)
  • #253 (England & Wales, 2018)
  • #298 (the Netherlands, 2018)

Marc is the French, Catalan & Welsh form and has been popularly used in the English-speaking world, it is currently the most popular male name in Catalonia, 2018 and between 1968-1976 it was in the U.S. Top 100. Marc’s rankings in the popularity charts are as follows

  • #26 (Spain, 2018)
  • #313 (France, 2018)
  • #825 (US, 2018)

Other forms of the name include:

  • Mark Марк (Albanian, Belarusian, Breton, Dutch, English, Maltese, Russian, Ukrainian)
  • Marḳos ማርቆስ (Amharic)
  • Marqus مَرْقُس‎ (Arabic, mainly used among Arab-Christians)
  • Marghos (Armenian)
  • Marko (Basque)
  • Marko Марко (Bosnian, Bulgarian, Croatian, Finnish, Macedonian, Serbian, Slovene, Ukrainian)
  • Markos Μαρκος Ⲙⲁⲣⲕⲟⲥ (Coptic, Greek)
  • Margh (Cornish)
  • Marcu (Corsican, Romanian)
  • Mokus (Croatian, Serbian)
  • Marek (Czech, Polish, Slovak)
  • Marco (Catalan, Dutch, Galician, German, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish)
  • Marc (Catalan, French, Occitanian, Welsh)
  • Marcus (Dutch, English, German, French, Scandinavian)
  • Markus (Dutch, Estonian, Faroese, Finnish, Frisian, German, Scandinavian)
  • Marghus (Estonian)
  • Markko, Markku (Finnish)
  • Marke (Finnish)
  • Marcas (Gaelic)
  • Marx (German, archaic)
  • Maleko (Hawaiian)
  • Márk (Hungarian)
  • Markús (Icelandic)
  • Marchino (Italian)
  • Marcolino (Italian)
  • Marcuccio (Italian)
  • Mareks (Latvian)
  • Marks (Latvian)
  • Markuss (Latvian)
  • Markas, Morkus (Lithuanian)
  • March (Lombard)
  • Markys (Manx)
  • Marquét (Poitvin, diminutive form)
  • Marcos (Portuguese, Spanish)
  • Kusi (Swiss-German diminutive form)
  • Marqōs ܡܪܩܘܣ‎ (Syriac)
  • Mår (Walloon)

It’s feminine forms include Marca but and sometimes Marcia was used as a feminine form, though it is more the feminine equivalent of Marcius.

Other feminine forms include:

  • Markusine (German, obscure)
  • Marchina (Italian)
  • Marcolina (Italian)
  • Marcuccia (Italian)

Sources

Rufus, Rufina

220px-William_II_of_England

King William II


The name comes directly from the Latin word meaning “red-headed.” It was a common Roman cognomen and was borne by a man who is referenced in Romans 16:13 and another who is referenced in Mark 15:21. According to Eastern Orthodox tradition, the aforementioned are one and the same person and is venerated as one of the Seventy Disciples mentioned in the Gospel of Luke. He is also popularly believed to be the son of Simon of Cyrene.

The name is borne by several other saints.

It was the nickname of King William II of England, known as William Rufus III on account of his red-hair.

The name appeared in the U.S. Top 100 2 times, in 1880 & 1882, peaking at #88 in 1880. It remained in the Top 1000 1988.

In England & Wales, the name was the 264th Most Popular Male Name in 2018.

Rufus is used in Dutch, Czech, English, Finnish, German, Latvian, Polish & the Scandinavian languages.

Other forms include:

  • Rufit (Albanian)
  • R’owp’osy Ռուփոսյ (Armenian)
  • Rufess (Bavarian)
  • Ruf Руф (Bulgarian, Catalan, French, Romanian, Russian, Serbian, Ukrainian)
  • Roufaous (Coptic)
  • Rufinus (Dutch, German, Latin, Scandinavian)
  • Ruffe (Finnish)
  • Ruuhva, Ruuhvus (Finnish)
  • Ryffe, Ryyfys (Finnish)
  • Rufin (French, German, Polish)
  • Rhouphon Ροῦφον (Greek)
  • Rúfusz (Hungarian)
  • Ruffo (Italian)
  • Rufillo, Ruffillo (Italian)
  • Rufino (Italian, Portuguese, Spanish)
  • Rufo (Italian, Portuguese, Spanish)
  • Rufinus (Latin)
  • Rufas (Lithuanian)
  • Rupuha (Maori)
  • Rúfus (Slovak)

150px-Santa_RufinaIts feminine form of Rufina was borne by a couple of early saints, one of whom was from Seville, she was a pottery maker who refused to sell her wares for a pagan festival.

Feminine forms include

  • Roufina (Coptic)
  • Rufe (French)
  • Rufine (French)
  • Rufina Руфина (Dutch, English, German, Hungarian, Italian, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Russian, Ukrainian, Scandinavian, Spanish)
  • Rufa (Italian)
  • Rufilla (Italian)

Sources

Rudy, Rudolph, Rolf

200px-Rudolf_IV


  • Origin: German
  • Meaning: “famous wolf.”
  • Gender: Masculine

The name is derived from the Germanic Hrodulf, which is composed of the elements hrod (fame) and wulf (wolf). The name was borne by several European rulers.

In England, it has been in use since Anglo-Saxon times, its Anglo-Saxon form of Hroðulf was usurped by the Norman Rudolph and Rodolph in the 11th-century.

In the English-speaking world, the name has come to be associated with the Christmas folk hero, Rudolph the Red-nosed Reindeer, based on a children’s book written by Robert L. May in 1939.

Rudolf appeared in the U.S. Top 1000 between 1887-1932, and peaked at # 715 in 1916. He appeared 3 times in the French Top 1000 in 1914, 1931 and again in 1933, peaking at #454 in 1934. He was in the German Top 20 between 1893 and 1936, peaking at #11 in 1899 and in 1916.

In France, it’s native form of Rodolphe appeared in the Top 1000 between 1900 and 2001 and peaked at #79 in 1970.

Its contracted form of Rolf has been in occasional use in England since the 11th-century. It was a favorite in German-speaking countries in the 1920s-50s, peaking at #11 in 1947. In Norway, it peaked at #14 in 1945. Rolf has also appeared in the American and French charts, though not very high. Rolf peaked at #210 in France in 1943 and #772 in 1960 in the U.S.

It his diminutive form of Rudy, often used as an independent given-name, is the one which has gained some traction in recent years. Rudy appeared in the French Top 100 between 1979-1984, and peaked at #76 in 1980. Rudy’s current rankings in the popularity charts are as follows:

  • #271 (England & Wales, 2018)
  • #822 (U.S.A., 2018)

Rudolf is used in Albanian, Armenian, Czech-Slovak, Dutch, Hungarian, Icelandic, Polish, Serbo-Croatian, Slovene, the Scandinavian languages and Russian.

Other forms include:

  • Hroðulf, Hrothulf (Anglo-Saxon)
  • Roel, Roelof, Ruud (Dutch)
  • Rodolf (Catalan)
  • Rolph (English)
  • Rudo, Ruudo, Ruudolf (Estonian)
  • Róðolvur (Faroese)
  • Ruuto, Ruutolffi, Ruutolhvi, Ruutolppi (Finnish)
  • Rodolphe (French)
  • Roele, Roelef, Roelf, Rolef, Rolof, Roloff, Roluf, Roolof (Frisian)
  • Rudolp რუდოლფ (Georgian)
  • Roff (German)
  • Rudi (German, Hungarian, Serbo-Croatian, Slovenian)
  • Rudo (German)
  • Rul (German)
  • Rûtulfe, Ruutuulfi (Greenlandic)
  • Rhodólphos Ροδόλφος (Greek)
  • Rúdólf (Icelandic)
  • Rodolfino (Italian)
  • Rodolfo (Italian, Portuguese, Spanish)
  • Ridolfo (Italian)
  • Rudolphus (Latin)
  • Rūdolfs, Rūdis (Latvian)
  • Rudolfas, Rudas (Lithuanian)
  • Doffen (Norwegian)
  • Roffe (Norwegian, Swedish)
  • Hróðólfr, Hrólfr (Old Norse)
  • Rudulf (Polish, archaic)
  • Duff, Dusch, Riedi, Ruosch (Romansch)
  • Ruedi (Swiss-German, diminutive form, occasionally used as an independent form)

Feminine forms include:

  • Rudolfia (Danish, Norwegian)
  • Rodolphine (French)
  • Rudolfine (German, Scandinavian)
  • Rodolfa, Rodolfina (Italian, Spanish)
  • Rodolfetta (Italian)
  • Rudolfa (Polish, Scandinavian)
  • Rudolfina (Hungarian, Polish, Scandinavian)

Sources

Aizah, Aiza

Aizah


This is another cross-cultural name that stems from across the globe. It is pronounced (I-zah) in all of its incarnations.

Its recent appearance in the U.K. Top 500 is most likely due to its use among the Pakistani community, in which case it derives from the Arabic Aydhah meaning, “replacement; substitute.” Others have suggested it derives from the Arabic عزّ (‘izz) meaning “glory, honour, majesty, power.” Aiza is also used as a Central Asian form of Aydhah. Another transliteration is Aizah.

Aiza is a Basque name and is recorded as a female name as early as the 12th-century in Navarre, it is the feminine form of Aizo which is of uncertain meaning. It has been suggested to be from aits (rock, stone). Although, there was a Basque king who had the feminine form as his byname, it is sometimes hispanified as Arista, which in his case may have been a corruption of the Basque Aritza (oak). As a result, Aiza appears as a surname throughout the Spanish-speaking world. Aiza has also been suggested to mean”cliff, rock” or “abyss.” Another Basque feminine form is Aizeti.

Aiza has also been very rarely used as feminine given-name in Latvia, its inspiration may be the Latvian word for river or gorge or it may be a contraction of another unknown name. The database of Latvian name statistics indicates the name has been used at least 6 times.

Finally, Aiza can be Japanese, from the Kanji characters 愛 (ai) meaning “love, affection” and 座 (za) meaning “seat; pin; cushion.”

Currently, Aiza is the 314th Most Popular Female Name in England & Wales (2018).

Sources

Igor, Ingvar

Radzivill_Igor-945


Ingvar is the modern Scandinavian form of the Old Norse, Yngvarr, meaning “Ing’s warrior.” It was introduced into Russia in the 10th-century by the Varangians, which gave the world the Igor form. The latter was borne by 2 Grand Princes of Kiev and has been a favorite in several Slavic countries since.

Currently, Igor is the 19th Most Popular Male Name in Poland (2018) and the 48th Most Popular in Moscow, Russia (2018), while in England he currently ranks quite low at #497 (2018).

Igor is used in Bulgarian, Czech-Slovak, Dutch, Estonian, German, Hungarian, Italian, Macedonian, Portuguese, Romanian, Serbo-Croatian, all modern Scandinavian languages, Slovene, & Spanish

Other forms of the name include:

  • Ihar Ігар (Belarusian)
  • Ingvar (Danish, Estonian, Finnish, Icelandic, Norwegian, Swedish)
  • Iku (Finnish)
  • Ingwar, Ingwer (German)
  • Ingvaari (Greelandic)
  • Ingvâre (Greenlandic)
  • Ígor (Icelandic)
  • Inguarus (Late Latin)
  • Ingvars, Igors (Latvian)
  • Igoris (Lithuanian)
  • Ignar (Nowegian)
  • Yngvar (Norwegian)
  • Yngvarr (Old Norse)
  • Ingwar (Polish)
  • Inguar (Portuguese)
  • Ingor (Swedish)
  • Ihor Ігор  (Ukrainian)

Sources