Gabriel, Gabriella

Origin: Hebrew גַבְרִיאֵל  Γαβριηλ
Meaning: “strong man of God.”
Eng (GABE-ree-el); (gah-bree-EL-ah); Fre (gah-bree-EL); Germ (GAHP-ree-el); Pol (GAHP-ryel)

The name is derived from the Biblical Hebrew, גַבְרִיאֵל (Gavri-el) meaning, “strong man of God.”

In Judeo-Christian religions, it is the name of a powerful archangel, who is often viewed as a messenger of God. He appears several times in the Old and New Testaments.

Among Christians, one of his most important messages was relayed to the Virgin Mary that she would be the mother of Jesus. Islamic tradition also believes the same, and in Islam, it was the angel Gabriel who revealed the Qu’ran, (through God), to Mohammed.

In Mormon theology, Gabriel is believed to be the embodiment of Noah in the afterlife.

Gabriel is a fairly common name among Christians, Jews and Muslims, making him an extremely cross-cultural portable name.

Currently, in the United States, his popularity has been rising. He is the 24th most popular male name, (2011). In other countries, his rankings in all his various forms are as follows:

  • # 2 (Gabriel(e), Liechtenstein, 2010)
  • # 3 (Brazil, 2011)
  • # 4 (Romania, 2009)
  • # 6 (Gabriele, Italy, 2009)
  • # 7 (France, 2010)
  • # 9 (Quebec, Canada, 2011)
  • # 19 (Croatia, 2009)
  • # 26 (Belgium, 2008)
  • # 28 (Canada, BC, 2010)
  • # 28 (Mexico, 2010)
  • # 29 (Austria, 2010)
  • # 35 (Spain, 2010)
  • # 40 (Poland, 2009)
  • # 47 (Sweden, 2011)
  • # 48 (Norway, 2011)
  • # 52 (Catalonia, 2010)
  • # 78 (England/Wales, 2010)
  • # 95 (Australia, NSW, 2011)
  • # 124 (Scotland, 2010)
  • # 189 (Djibril, France, 2010)
  • # 313 (Jibril, France, 2010)

Other forms of the name include:

  • Jibrail/Jibrīl جبرائيل ጂብሪል (Arabic/Ethiopian)
  • Gabriel გაბრიელი ገብርኤል
    (Armenian/Catalan/Coptic/Czech/Danish/English/Ethiopian/Finnish/French/Georgian/German/Norwegian/Polish/Portuguese/Romanian/Romansch/Spanish/Swedish)
  • Gavrik (Armenian)
  • Cəbrayıl/Cibril (Azeri)
  • Gawryil Гаўрыіл (Belarusian)
  • Džibril/Džebrail (Bosnian)
  • Gavrail Гавраил (Bulgarian)
  • Zheberejil Жәбірейіл (Central Asian)
  • Gabrijel (Croatian/Maltese/Serbian)
  • Gabriël (Dutch)
  • Gaabriel (Estonian)
  • Gabrel (Ethiopian)
  • Kaapo/Kaapro (Finnish)
  • Gabriél Γαβριήλ (Greek)
  • Gavril Γαβριηλ (Greek)
  • Gavriel גַּבְרִיאֵל (Hebrew)
  • Gábriel (Hungarian)
  • Gábor (Hungarian)
  • Gabríel (Icelandic)
  • Jibril (Indonesian)
  • Gaibriéil (Irish-Gaelic)
  • Gabo/Gabbo (Italian)
  • Gabriele (Italian: more common form)
  • Gabriellino (Italian)
  • Gabriello (Italian)
  • Gabrio (Italian)
  • Cibrayîl (Kurdish)
  • Gabrielus (Latin)
  • Gabriels (Latvian)
  • Gabrielius (Lithuanian)
  • Jibrail (Malaysian)
  • Gavriilu Гаврїилъ (Old Church Slavonic)
  • Khabbriele (Puglian)
  • Gabin (Provençal)
  • Gavril Гавриил (Romanian/Russian)
  • Crabiele/Gabilele/Gabriello (Sardinian)
  • Cabbrieli (Sicilian)
  • Gabri’el ܠܒܪܝܐܝܠ (Syrian)
  • Gebrael (Syrian)
  • Cebrâîl (Turkish)
  • Gavrel גַאבְֿרֶעל (Yiddish)

English short form is Gabe.

Its feminine form of Gabriella/Gabriela is also rising in popularity. Currently, Gabriella is the 34th most popular female name in the United States, (2011). Her rankings in other countries are as follows:

  • # 3 (Gabriela, Bulgaria, 2009)
  • # 5 (Gabrielė, Lithuania, 2011)
  • # 5 (Gabrielle, Philippines, 2011)
  • # 7 (Gabriela, Columbia, 2011)
  • # 8 (Gabriela, Romania, 2009)
  • # 9 (Gabriela, Puerto Rico, 2011)
  • # 10 (Gabriela, Brazil, 2010)
  • # 13 (Gabriela, Poland, Warsaw, 2010)
  • # 19 (Gabriela, Poland, 2009)
  • # 28 (Gabrijela, Croatia, 2009)
  • # 30 (Gabriela, Mexico, 2010)
  • # 30 (Gabrielly, Brazil, 2010)
  • # 36 (Gabriela, Croatia, 2009)
  • # 38 (Gabriela, Chile, 2010)
  • # 64 (Australia, NSW, 2011)
  • # 64 (Gabriela, Spain, 2010)
  • # 67 (Gabrielle, France, 2010)
  • # 72 (Canada, BC, 2010)
  • # 94 (Gabrielle, Canada, BC, 2010)
  • # 119 (Gabrielle, United States, 2011)
  • # 466 (France, 2010)

Other feminine forms include:

  • Gebre’elwa ገብርኤሏ (Amharic/Ethiopian)
  • Gabriela (Bulgarian/Croatian/Czech/German/Polish/Portuguese/Romanian/Scandinavian/Slovak/Spanish)
  • Brielle (Cajun: abbreviated form of Gabrielle)
  • Gabrijela (Croatian/Serbian)
  • Gabriëlle (Dutch)
  • Briella/Briela (English)
  • Gabrielle (French/English)
  • Gabria (Italian)
  • Gabrielina (Italian)
  • Gabriella (Italian/English/Hungarian/Scandinavian: more common form in Italy)
  • Gabrielė (Lithuanian)
  • Gavriila Гавриила (Russian)

Czech diminutives are: Gába, Gabika, Gábina, Gabrina and Gabby.

A Polish diminutive is Gabrysia (gah-BRIH-shah).

English short forms are: Gabby and Ella.

Designated name-days are: February 10/27 (Poland), February 19 (Sweden), March 24 (Czech/Finland/Poland/Slovakia/Sweden), September 29 (France/Germany), December 12 (Hungary)

Eva, Eve

Gender: Feminine
Origin: Hebrew
Meaning: “life.”
Eng (EEV); (EE-vuh); Germ/Sp/Pol (EV-ah)

The name is borne in the Bible and in the Quran by the first woman created by God. She and her husband were expelled from the Garden of Eden after eating from the Tree of Knowledge.

The name is believed to be derived from the Hebrew roots חַוָּה, Ḥavvāh, from the Hebrew root ḥāyâ meaning “life” and the Semitic element, ḥyw “to live.” Both the Hebrew word chavah meaning “to live” and chayah meaning “to breath” share the same root.

Despite Eve’s fall from Grace in the Bible, the name was always in usage among Jewish, Christian and Muslim communities. In England, its usage can be traced back to the 12th-century. Its Latinate form of Eva, has always been a classic in continental Europe, especially in Germany, Poland, Slovakia and the Czech Republic.

As of 2010, Eva was the most popular female name in the Faroe Islanda and in Slovenia. Eve, Eva and all her various forms’ rankings in other countries are as follows:

  • # 3 (Iceland, 2010)
  • # 4 (French-speaking, Switzerland, 2010)
  • # 5 (Netherlands, 2010)
  • # 7 (Ieva, Lithuania, 2010)
  • # 10 (Armenia, 2010)
  • # 10 (Evie, England/Wales, 2010)
  • # 14 (Northern Ireland, 2010)
  • # 15 (France, 2009)
  • # 17 (Scotland, 2010)
  • # 20 (Belgium, 2009)
  • # 24 (New Zealand, 2010)
  • # 26 (Australia, NSW, 2010)
  • # 29 (Croatia, 2010)
  • # 31 (Evie, Scotland, 2010)
  • # 33 (Evie, Australia, NSW, 2010)
  • # 37 (England/Wales, 2010)
  • # 44 (Eevi, Finland among Finnish-speakers, 2010)
  • # 44 (Ireland, 2010)
  • # 46 (Austria, 2010)
  • # 47 (Canada, BC, 2010)
  • # 48 (Spain, 2010)
  • # 55 (Catalonia, 2010)
  • # 55 (Éabha, Ireland, 2010)
  • # 56 (Eve, Northern Ireland, 2010)
  • # 59 (Eve, Ireland, 2010)
  • # 86 (Norway, 2010)
  • # 91 (United States, 2010)
  • # 92 (Eve, England/Wales, 2010)
  • # 99 (Eve, Australia, NSW, 2010)
  • # 201 (Eve, France, 2009)
  • # 589 (Eve, United States, 2010)
  • # 705 (Evie, United States, 2010)

Other forms of the name include:

  • Eva Ева ევა
    (Afrikaans/Albanian/Armenian/Basque/Belarusian/Bosnian/Catalan/Croatian/Czech/Dutch/Faroese/French/Frisian/Galician/Georgian/German/Icelandic/Italian/Portuguese/Romansch/Spanish/Scandinavian)
  • Evis (Albanian)
  • Mahalet/Mahlet (Amharic)
  • Hawa حواء Хауа (Arabic)
  • Yeva (Armenian)
  • Həvva (Azeri)
  • Yeva Ева Эва (Belarusian/Russian/Ukrainian)
  • Yevga Евга (Belarusian)
  • Hava (Bosnian)
  • Evy (Danish/Norwegian/Swedish: initially a diminutive form, occasionally used as an independent given name)
  • Eveke (Dutch: initially a diminutive form, used as an independent given name, EV-eh-ke)
  • Eve (English/Estonian/Walon)
  • Evie (English)
  • Hawat/Hewa (Egyptian/Coptic)
  • Eeva (Estonian/Finnish)
  • Eevi (Estonian/Finnish)
  • Evi (Estonian)
  • Ivi/Iivi (Estonian)
  • Iivika (Estonian)
  • Ève (French)
  • Eefje, Eefke (Frisian)
  • Hawwa ሕይዋን (Ge-ez)
  • Eua Ευα (Greek)
  • Chava חַוָה (Hebrew: Modern: KHAH-vah, gutteral CH sound)
  • Éva (Hungarian: AY-vaw, diminutive form is Évike)
  • Hawa (Indonesian/Malayalam)
  • Éabha (Irish-Gaelic)
  • Ieva (Latvian/Lithuanian: YEH-vah)
  • Evuzus (Malaysian)
  • Aaue (Manx)
  • Èva (Occitanian)
  • Ewa (Polish: EH-vah, diminutive forms are Ewka, Ewunia and Ewusia)
  • Evá (Sami)
  • Evelia (Spanish)
  • Evita (Spanish)
  • Eba (Tagalog)
  • Havva (Turkish)
  • Efa (Welsh)

Italian masculine form is Evo.

Traditionally, in most European countries, the name-day for Adam and Eve is December 24.

Mary, Maria, Miriam

Mary and its various forms has to be one of the quintessential, classic female names of all time, she has been used in Protestant England in the form of Mary, in the Islamic world as Maryam, in Jewish communities in the form of Miriam and in the Catholic world as Maria, Marie or Mary.

In the United States, she has never quite detracted from the top 100, if Mary is not in fashion then it is usually one of her other forms that may take her place, such as Molly, Mariah, Maria or Mia, all depending on the flavor of the day.

Currently, Mary is the 97th most popular female name in the United States, (2008). Mary’s rankings in other countries are as follows:

  • # 7 (Armenia, 2008)
  • # 57 (Ireland, 2007)

Its French form of Marie is popular outside the Hexagon, she currently ranks in as the 546th most popular female name in the United States, but in other countries, she appears in the top 10. Her rankings are as follows:

  • # 9 (Armenian, 2008)
  • # 4 (Belgium, 2008)
  • # 17 (Czech Republic, 2008)
  • # 24 (Denmark, 2008)
  • # 20 (France, 2009)
  • # 9 (Germany, 2009)
  • # 270 (the Netherlands, 2008)

The continental form of Maria is extremely popular across Europe and Latin America, her rankings in other countries are as follows:

  • # 4 (Argentina, 2009)
  • # 8 (Basque Country, Spain, 2008)
  • # 3 (Belarus, 2005)
  • # 3 (Bulgaria, 2008)
  • # 89 (Canada, B.C., 2008)
  • # 6 (Catalonia, Spain, 2008)
  • # 8 (Chile, 2008)
  • # 91 (England/Wales, 2008)
  • # 6 (Estonia, 2007)
  • # 4 (Faroe Islands, 2008)
  • # 59 (Germany, 2009)
  • # 1 (Greece, 2004)
  • # 90 (Hungary, 2008)
  • # 5 (Iceland, 2004-2007)
  • # 49 (Ireland, 2008)
  • # 1 (Israel, among Christian girls, 2004)
  • # 9 Marija (Latvia, 2005)
  • # 1 Marija (Macedonia, 2006)
  • # 1 (Malta, 2008)
  • # 39 (the Netherlands, 2008)
  • # 14 (Norway, 2008)
  • # 17 (Poland, 2009)
  • # 1 (Portugal, 2008)
  • # 2 (Romania, 2008)
  • # 2 (Russia, 2007)
  • # 99 (Scotland, 2008)
  • # 1 (Slovakia, 2004)
  • # 2 (Spain, 2008)
  • # 96 (Sweden, 2008)
  • # 7 (Ukraine, 2009)
  • # 64 (United States, 2008)

Her diminutive offshoot of Mia, has also been quite trendy the last 10 years, as of 2008, she was the 14th most popular female name in the United States. In other countries, her rankings are as follows:

  • # 1 (Australia, 2008)
  • # 25 (Canada, B.C., 2008)
  • # 44 (Chile, 2006)
  • # 11 (England/Wales, 2008)
  • # 1 (Germany, 2009)
  • # 23 (Ireland, 2008)
  • # 5 (Isle of Man, 2009)
  • # 350 (the Netherlands, 2008)
  • # 24 (New Zealand, 2009)
  • # 12 (Norway, 2008)
  • # 26 (Scotland, 2008)
  • # 46 (Slovenia, 2005)
  • # 3 (Switzerland, among Romansch-speakers, 2008)

Another common diminutive offshoot, is Molly, which is mostly used in the English speaking world, but has also shifted over to some of the Scandinavian countries. Her rankings in other countries are as follows:

  • # 57 (Australia, 2007)
  • # 84 (Canada, B.C., 2008)
  • # 32 (England/Wales, 2008)
  • # 25 (Ireland, 2008)
  • # 33 (New Zealand, 2009)
  • # 39 (Scotland, 2008)
  • # 11 (Sweden, 2008)
  • # 104 (United States, 2008)

Miriam is another common choice which is popular throughout Europe and the Middle East. Her rankings are as follows:

  • # 1 Mariam (Georgia, 2008)
  • # 6 Maryam (Iran, 2007)
  • # 4 Maryam (Israel, among Muslim girls, 2004)
  • # 6 Maryam (Pakistan)
  • # 48 Miriam (Spain, 2008)
  • # 1 Mariam (Tunisia, 2005)
  • # 309 Miriam (United States, 2008)

As for its meaning and derivation, though the its origins can be traced back to the Bible, its lingustic and etymological meaning has long been debated. Many hypothesis include that the name could be a derivative of the Hebrew meri, ‘rebel’ related to the Hebrew verb MRH, mara or Marah which means’ to be “rebellious.” Or that it is related to the Hebrew word מרא (MRA, mara) which means ‘well-fed’, something which would have been considered a comely attribute in Biblical times.

One of the most popular etymological theories is its association with the Hebrew מר (MR, mar), meaning. “bitter” or “bitterness, and another very well established hypothesis suggests that it is from an Egyptian source, mry “beloved” or mr meaning “love.”

Other possible theories include:

That is it a combination of the Hebrew words מר (MR, mar), meaning “bitter” or the Hebrew (mar) meaning, “drop”; or (mor) meaning, “myrrh” or ” (mari ) meaning “mistress’.

The name is borne by several female characters in both the Old and New Testament.

Among Jews, the name was originally used in honour of the sister of Aaron, Miriam the Prophetess.

Among Muslims and Christians, (particularly Catholics and Eastern Orthodox), the name is usually used in honour of the Virgin Mary, the mother of Jesus.

However, in certain eras and cultures, Mary or Maria was considered too sacred of a name to use on a child, and in other cultures, the name Maria is so honorable to have, that it is even bestowed upon males, usually in conjunction with a male name or as a middle name. This is especially so in Spanish-speaking countries, French speaking countries and occasionally done in other predominate Catholic countries such as Ireland, Poland and in Bavaria, Germany.

The name has made is presence known in British royalty as well as in the continental ruling houses. Other forms are as follows:

Latinate Forms
Forms used in Latin-based languages

  • Marieta (Catalan: originally a diminutive form, used as an independent given name in Spanish-speaking countries)
  • Miryam (Catalan: archaic form from the 13th-century)
  • Maria (Corsican/Italian/Occitanian/Portuguese/Romanian/Romansch/Latin)
  • Manon (French: originally a diminutive form of Marie, the name has been used as an independent given name for centuries. In fact, it currently ranks in as the 7th most popular female name in Belgium (2006), the 4th most popular female name in France (2006), and the 184th most popular female name in the Netherlands (2008). Pronunciation can be heard here: http://www.forvo.com/search/Manon/)
  • Marie (French: she is one of the most popular middle names in the English speaking world. In French, this form is bestowed on males in conjunction with other male names or as a middle name. There are several common French female names used in conjunction with Marie, as well. Those of which, I will save for future postings).
  • Marielle (French: originally a diminutive form of Marie, now used exclusively as an independent given name)
  • Mariette (French: a diminutive form of Marie, occasionally used as an independent given name, now considered dated in French-speaking countries).
  • Mariolle(French: obscure, very old diminutive form of Marie, the inspiration of the Polish offshoot, Mariola).
  • Marion (French: a medieval French diminutive form of Marie, now exclusively used as an independent given name, the name was borne in legend by the love interest of Robin Hood, Maid Marion, and is borne by French actress, Marion Cotillard. In France, it is the 59th most popular female name (2006)
  • Myriam (French: form of the Biblical, Miriam, she ranks in as the 95th most popular female name in France (2006)
  • Mariella (Italian: originally a diminutive form of Maria, now exclusively used as an independent given name)
  • Marietta (Italian: a diminutive form of Maria, occasionally used as an independent given name).
  • Marigia (Italian: obscure)
  • Mariuzza/Maruzziella (Italian: obscure)
  • Mariana (Portuguese: Mariana is usually considered a name of a seperate etymology, but is used in Portuguese and Spanish as a form of Miriam. She is the 73rd most popular female name in Chile, 2006).
  • María (Spanish/Galician).
  • Marita (Spanish: a diminutive form of Maria, now often used as an independent given name)
  • Maritza (Spanish: a Latin American spin-off of Maria, originally a diminutive form, now a trendy given name, especially among Mexican-Americans, she is currently the 560th most popular female name in the United States).
  • Mareye (Walon)

An Italian diminutive form is Mimi. A Portuguese diminutive form is Mariazinha.

Masculine forms are:

  • Mari (Catalan)
  • Mariu (Corsican)
  • Mario (Italian/Galician)
  • Marius (Latin/French/Romanian)
  • Mário (Portuguese)

Germanic Forms
Forms used in Germanic-speaking countries

  • Maiken/Majken (Danish/Norwegian/Swedish: originally a diminutive form of Maria, now used exclusively as an independent given name).
  • Maria (Danish/Dutch/English/Faroese/Frisian/German/Norwegian/Swedish)
  • Marie (Danish/German/Norwegian/Swedish: a borrowing from the French)
  • Mari (Danish)
  • Maaike/Maike (Dutch/Frisian/German: originally a diminutive form, used exclusively as an independent given name. In 2008, it was the 98th most popular female name in the Netherlands)
  • Marieke(Dutch: originally a diminutive form, now exclusively used as an independent given name. In 2008, it was the 188th most popular female name in the Netherlands)
  • Marijke (Dutch: mah-RYE-keh)
  • Marike (Dutch: originally a diminutive form of Maria, now used exclusively as an independent given name, pronounced mah-REE-keh)
  • Marja (Dutch/Faroese/Gothic/Limburgish: MAHR-yah).
  • Meike (Dutch/German: originally a diminutive form, now used as an independent given name, it was the 53rd most popular female name in the Netherlands of 2008.)
  • Mia (Dutch/German/English/Scandinavian: originally a diminutive form, now used as an independent given name)
  • Mieke (Dutch/Limburgish: originally a diminutive form, used exclusively as an independent given name MEE-keh)
  • Miep(Dutch: a diminutive form, but occasionally used as an independent given name MEEP).
  • Miet (Dutch: originally a diminutive form, occasionally used as an independent given name MEET).
  • Mirjam (Dutch/German/Swedish: form of the Biblical Miriam).
  • Mariel (English: just an anglicized form of the French, Marielle).
  • Mariota (English: archaic, form used in the 13th-century)
  • Mary (English)
  • Molly/Mollie (English: originally a diminutive form, now used more often as an independent given name)
  • Polly (English: originally a diminutive form, now used more often as an independent given name)
  • Marý(Faroese)
  • Mareike (Frisian/German: originally a diminutive form of Maria, now used exclusively as an independent given name)
  • Maja (German/Scandinavian: originally a diminutive form of Maria, used exclusively as an independent given name. It is the 2nd most popular female name in Sweden, (2008)
  • Mariele(German: originally diminutive form of Maria, used exclusively as an independent given name, pronounced mah-REE-leh).
  • Miriam(German/English: Biblical form, often used in German and English speaking countries)
  • Mitzi (German/English: not really used as an independent given name in German speaking countries, but experienced a short usage of popularity as an independent given name in the United States).
  • Ria(German/Dutch: originally diminutive forms, occasionally used as independent given names)
  • Mæja (Icelandic: originally a diminutive form of Maria, used exclusively as an independent given name)
  • María(Icelandic)
  • Mies (Limburgish: diminutive form of Maria, used as an independent given name in the Netherlands. MEES)
  • Mathie (Normand: mah-TEE)
  • My(Swedish: originally a diminutive form of Maria, now used as an independent given name MEE. In 2007, it was the 79th most popular female name in Sweden).
  • Mirele מִירֶעל(Yiddish: a form of Miriam. MEER-eh-leh)

Common English diminutives include May, Mayme, Mare, Mia, Molle, Molly, Moll and Polly, German diminutive forms are Mariechen and Mitzi.

Masculine forms include:

  • Marius (Dutch/German/English/Norwegian/Swedish)
  • Marjus (Faroese)
  • Maríus (Icelandic)

Baltic Forms
Variations used in Baltic countries.

  • Maaja (Estonian)
  • Maare/Maari (Estonian)
  • Maarika (Estonian/Finnish)
  • Maaria/Maarja (Estonian)
  • Maie/Maiu (Estonian: initially diminutive forms, now used as independent given names, MY-eh, MY-oo)
  • Maila/Maili/Mailu (Estonian: Maili is pronounced somewhat like Miley)
  • Mari (Estonian/Finnish)
  • Marjam (Estonian)
  • Marje/Marjen (Estonian)
  • Marjette (Estonian)
  • Mary (Estonian)
  • Maija/Maiju (Finnish)
  • Maikki (Finnish: a Finnicized form of the Sweden and Danish Majken, pronounced somewhat like Mikey)
  • Maaria/Maria (Finnish)
  • Marika (Finnish)
  • Maritta (Finnish)
  • Marjatta (Finnish: can also mean “without a berry” in Finnish, and is the name of a character in the Kalevala, but is often used as a variation of Maria; also used in Estonia)
  • Marjo (Finnish)
  • Marjukka (Finnish)
  • Marjut (Finnish)
  • Miia (Finnish)
  • Mirja (Finnish: translation of Miriam)
  • Mirjam/Mirjami (Finnish)
  • Maija (Latvian)
  • Maila (Latvian: MY-lah)
  • Mairita/Mairīta/Mairīte (Latvian)
  • Mairuta (Latvian)
  • Mare (Latvian: final E is pronounced)
  • Mareka (Latvian)
  • Mareta/Māreta (Latvian)
  • Marī (Latvian)
  • Mārica (Latvian)
  • Mariela (Latvian)
  • Mārieta (Latvian)
  • Marija (Latvian/Lithuanian)
  • Mārika (Latvian)
  • Marite/Mārita/Mārīte/Marīte (Latvian)
  • Marjama (Latvian)
  • Maruta/Māruta/Marute (Latvian)
  • Mare (Lithuanian)
  • Maryte (Lithuanian)

Masculine forms are:

  • Maarius/Mairo/Mario (Estonian)
  • Marijus/Marius (Lithuanian)

Slavic Forms
Forms used in Slavic countries

  • Merjem (Bosnian)
  • Mirjana (Bosnian/Croatian/Serbian/Slovene: translation of Miriam)
  • Mariya (Bulgarian/Russian/Ukrainian)
  • Marija (Croatian/Macedonian/Serbian/Slovene)
  • Marie (Czech: MAHR-yeh)
  • Maria (Polish)
  • Marieta (Polish)
  • Mariola (Polish: mahr-YOLE-ah)
  • Marita (Polish)
  • Maryla (Polish: mah-RIH-lah)
  • Marzena (Polish: not really etymologically related, but has had a historical usage as a variation of Maria in Poland. The name is actually the name of an ancient Polish goddess and it may be linked with the either Polish word for “hope; dream” or with the Old Slavonic word for “death.” mahr-ZHEH-nah, diminutive form is Marzenka).
  • Mária (Slovakian)
  • Marika (Slovakian)
  • Marica (Slovene: initially a diminutive form, used as an independent given name in Slovenia, but is also used as a diminutive form in Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, Czech and Slovakian, mah-REET-sah).
  • Mojca (Slovene: initially a diminutive form, now used exclusively as an independent given name in Slovenia. MOY-tsah)
  • Marya Марья (Russian)

Czech and Slovak diminutive forms are: Mája, MáňaMaruška and Maryška. Serbian and Slovene diminutives are Maša. Russian diminutives are Manya, Masha, Mashenka and Mashka. Polish diminutives are MasiaMarysia (mah-RISH-ah) and Maryska.

Masculine forms are:

  • Marian (Polish)
  • Mariusz (Polish)
  • Marij/Mario (Slovene)

Celtic Forms
Forms used in Celtic Languages

  • Mari (Breton)
  • Mallaidh (Irish-Gaelic: translation of Molly)
  • Maira/Máire (Irish-Gaelic)
  • Mairenn/Máirín (Irish-Gaelic)
  • Muire (Irish-Gaelic)
  • Mariod/Mariot (Manx)
  • Moirrey/Voirrey (Manx)
  • Màiri (Scotch-Gaelic)
  • Mhari (Scotch-Gaelic)
  • Mhairi/Mhairie (Scotch-Gaelic)
  • Moire (Scotch-Gaelic)
  • Mair (Welsh)

Other Forms
Forms used in other languages not listed in the above

  • Maria (Albanian/Kiswahili)
  • Maryam مريم (Arabic)
  • Mariam (Armenian)
  • Məryəm (Azeri)
  • Maia (Basque)
  • Miren (Basque)
  • Mariam (Coptic/Egyptian)
  • Mariami (Georgian)
  • Maria Μαρία (Greek: Modern)
  • Maroula/Roula (Greek: Modern: initially diminutive forms)
  • Malia (Hawaiian/Zuni)
  • Mária (Hungarian)
  • Maria (Indonesian)
  • Meryem (Kurdish/Turkish)
  • Mariam/Mariamma/Mariamme (Malayalam)
  • Marija (Maltese)
  • Mere (Maori)
  • Miriama (Maori)

The name has several name-days.

Stephen

Gender: Masculine
Origin: Greek
Meaning: ” wreath; garland.”
Eng (STEE-ven); (STEF-en)

The name is derived from the Greek, Στεφανος, (Stephanos), which refers to a wreath or garland worn upon the head, hence, the name is sometimes interpreted to mean “crown.”

As written in the New Testament, it was the name of a deacon who was stoned to death for his beliefs and is regarded as the first Christian martyr.

The designated name-day is December 26.

In the United States, Stephen currently comes in as the 192nd most popular male name, while Steven is the 104th most popular, (2008).

Other forms of the name include:

  • Stefan/Stefaan/Stëven/Stephan (Afrikaans)
  • Shtjefën/Stefan (Albanian)
  • Istfan, إصتفان, ستيف, ستيفن (Arabic)
  • Stepanos/Stepan Ստեփանոս, Ստեփան (Armenian)
  • Tcheunne (Arpetan)
  • İstfan/Stepan (Azeri)
  • Estebe/Eztebe (Basque)
  • Esteve (Bearnais/Catalan/Occitanian/Provençal)
  • Steven (Breton)
  • Stefan Стефан (Bulgarian: Stefcho Стефчо is a diminutive form)
  • Stjepan (Croatian/Serbian: diminutive forms are Stipe and Stipo).
  • Štěpán/Štefan (Czech)
  • Stephen/Stefan/Stephan (Danish)
  • Steven/Stefaan/Stefanus/Stefan/Stephan (Dutch: Stef is a common Dutch diminutive form)
  • Tehvan (Estonian)
  • Sitiveni (Fijian)
  • Tahvo/Teppo (Finnish)
  • Tapani (Finnish)
  • Étienne (French: classic form)
  • Éstienne (French: medieval form)
  • Stéphane (French: more modern form)
  • Steffen (Frisian: used in Germany, Holland, Norway and Denmark)
  • Estevo (Galician)
  • Stefan/Stephan (German)
  • Stephanos Στέφανος (Greek)
  • Kepano/Kiwini (Hawaiian)
  • István (Hungarian: Pisti, Pisto and Isti. 30th most popular male in Hungary, 2008)
  • Stefán (Icelandic)
  • Steephan (Indian)
  • Steafán/Stiofán (Irish: Gaelic)
  • Stefano (Italian)
  • Stefanino/Stefanio/Stenio/Steno (Italian: obscure forms)
  • Stefanus/Stephanus (Latin)
  • Stefans/Stepans/Stepons (Latvian)
  • Steponas/Stepas (Lithuanian)
  • Stefan/Stevan Стефан, Стеван (Macedonian)
  • Stiefnu (Maltese)
  • Tipene (Maori)
  • Šćepan Шћепан (Montenegrin)
  • Stefanu Стефанъ (Old Church Slavonic)
  • Stefan/Szczepan (Polish)
  • Estêvão (Portuguese)
  • Ştefan (Romanian: Fane is a diminutive form)
  • Steivan/Stiafan (Romansch)
  • Stefan/Stiven/Stepan Стефан, Стивен, Степан (Russian)
  • Istevene (Sardinian)
  • Stìobhan/Stìophan/Stèaphan (Scottish: Steenie is a Scotch diminutive form)
  • Stevan Стеван (Serbian)
  • Štefan (Slovak/Slovene)
  • Esteban (Spanish)
  • Stefan/Staffan/Stephan (Swedish: Steffo is a diminutive form)
  • Êtiên (Vietnamese)
  • Stepan ஸ்டீபன் (Tamil)
  • İstefanos (Turkish)
  • Stefan/Stepan Степан, Стефан (Ukrainian)
  • Steffan (Welsh)

Stephanie is a common feminine form, in the United States, she was one of the most popular feminine names between 1972 and 1994. She ranked in at # 6, four years in a row, between the years 1984 and 1987.

As of 2008, she ranked in as the 105th most popular female name. In other countries, her rankings are as follows:

  • # 84 (Australia, 2007)
  • # 488 (the Netherlands, 2008)

Estefanía was the 77th most popular female name in Chile in 2006.

Other feminine forms include:

  • Esteveneta (Bearnais/Occitanian)
  • Štěpánka (Czech)
  • Stefana (Dutch)
  • Etiennette (French: archaic)
  • Stéphanie (French)
  • Stefanie (German/Danish/Dutch: was a very popular name in Germany during the 1980s and 90s. Germ: SHTEH-fah-nee; Dutch (STAY-fah-nee. Steffi is a common German diminutive form.)
  • Kekepania (Hawaiian)
  • Stefánia (Hungarian)
  • Stefania (Italian/Polish/Romanian: Polish diminutive forms are Stefcia and Stefa)
  • Stefanina (Italian: obscure)
  • Stefanella (Italian: obscure)
  • Stenia/Stena (Italian: obscure)
  • Szczepana (Polish)
  • Estèva (Occitanian/Provençal)
  • Štefánia (Slovak)
  • Estefanía (Spanish)

Stevie, Steff, and Steffie are the preferred English diminutives.

Adam

Gender: Masculine
Origin: Hebrew
Meaning: “man”

The name is found in the Old Testament as the name of the first man created by God. Whether Adam is used as a personal name or in a generic sense is up to debate, many Biblical scholars agree that the authors of Genesis were not using Adam as a personal name, but more of a generic term.

Though in modern Semitic languages, the modern word for man is many times Adam, or Ben-Adam (son of Adam), its actual etymology is also debated. Some believe it is ultimately derived from the Hebrew אדם (‘adam) meaning “red” referring either to human skin tone, or to the colour of earth, which in the Bible, is what God created Adam from. Other sources suggest that it may be related to an Akkadian source, Adamu, meaning “to make.”

The name is a popular choice among Christians, Jews and Muslims alike. In Europe, it has been in use since the early Middle Ages. Among Christians, Christ is often given the title of the “New Adam.”

Its designated name-day, along with Eve, is usually December 24.

Currently, Adam is the # 78th most popular male name in the United States. In other countries, his rankings are as follows:

  • # 35 (Australia, 2007)
  • # 28 (Belgium, 2006)
  • # 47 (Canada, BC, 2008)
  • # 8 (Czech Republic, 2008)
  • #32 (England/Wales, 2008)
  • # 34 (France, 2006)
  • # 7 (Hungary, 2008)
  • # 7 (Ireland, 2008)
  • # 10 (Israel, among Muslim boys, 2004)
  • # 1 (Israel, among Druze boys, 2004)
  • # 76 (the Netherlands, 2008)
  • # 6 (Northern Ireland, 2009)
  • # 19 (Scotland, 2008)
  • # 75 (Spain, 2006)
  • # 28 (Sweden, 2007)

In addition, the Adam form is also used in Armenian, Bulgarian, Catalan, Croatian/Serbian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, German, Icelandic, Polish, Romanian, Slovakian and Slovenian.

Other forms of the name include:

  • Adami (Albanian)
  • Ādam آدم (Arabic)
  • Adəm (Azeri)
  • Adame (Basque)
  • Adem (Bosnian/Kurdish)
  • Aadam (Estonian)
  • Ádam (Faroese)
  • Aadam/Aatami (Finnish)
  • Adám Αδάμ (Greek)
  • Akamu (Hawaiian)
  • ʼĀḏām אָדָם (Hebrew: Modern)
  • Ádám (Hungarian)
  • Ádhamh/Ádam (Irish)
  • Adamo (Italian)
  • Adamus (Latin)
  • Ādams (Latvian)
  • Adomas (Lithuanian)
  • Adamu (Old Church Slavonic)
  • Adão (Portuguese)
  • Aden/Adom (Romansch)
  • Adam Адам (Russian/Ukrainian)
  • Adàmu (Sardinian)
  • Addamu (Sicilian)
  • Aadam (Somalian)
  • Adán (Spanish, ah-DAHN)
  • Adan (Tagalog)
  • Âdem (Turkish)
  • Odam (Uzbek)
  • Adda (Welsh)

A feminine version is the Spanish and Scotch, Adamina.

A Polish diminutive form is Adaš

Judah/Jude/Judith

Origin: Biblical Hebrew
Meaning: “celebrated; praise.”

Judah is a Greek form of the Hebrew name, Yehuda יְהוּדָה, which is the name of several characters in the Old Testament and at least two figures in the New Testament. In the Old Testament, the original Judah was said to be the fourth son of Leah and Jacob, the progenitor of the Judah tribe, and he is also traditionally believed to be a direct ancestor of Jesus. In Biblical Greek, Judah, Judas and Jude were all interchangeable, since in Greek, Yehudah was translated as Ioudas, but for convenience sake, especially in English, Judas is usually used to refer to the ex Apostle, Judas Iscariot, who is known for his betrayal of Christ, and due to these associations, this form of the name has extremely dubious connotations, especially among Christians. However, Jude is used in reference to another apostle, known as St. Jude Thaddeus, who is a very popular saint among Roman Catholics.

In Jewish circles, Judah is usually used in reference to the tribe, or in reference to Judah, the fourth son of Leah and Jacob. It is sometimes bestowed upon boys born around the festival of Hanukkah, which is used in honour of Judah Maccabeus, who is considered to be one of the greatest warriors in Jewish history. He was the son of Mattathias, a Cohen, and was known for his uprising against the Seleucid Empire in 167 BCE-160 BCE. The Jewish feast and holiday, known as Hanukkah, (Hebrew for “dedication”), commemorates the restoration of the temple in Jerusalem after Judah Maccabeus removed Pagan statuary from the Temple.

The name Jude has increased in popularity the last 10 years, as of 2008, he ranked in as the # 224th most popular male name in the United States.

Its feminine form of Judith, Hebrew יְהוּדִית Yehudit, was borne in the Old Testament by a wife of Esau, but is probably most closely associated with the protagonist found in the Book of Judith, which is a deuterocanonical book, included in the Septuagint and in the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Christian Old Testament of the Bible. The book is rejected by Protestant Christians and Jews since it is mostly apocryphal and believed to be more of a morality tale versus anything based on historical fact, however, though the book is not considered historically accurate by Jews, Judith remained a popular Jewish heroine and symbol. In fact, the name’s popularity among Jews is probably more in association with her than of the wife of Esau. Judith is known for her beheading of the evil, Assyrian invader, Holofernes. She was a popular subject of artists for centuries.

The name experienced some usage in Catholic Europe during the Middle Ages, since Judith was considered as much a heroine among Christians as she was among Jews. The highest Judith ranked in the U.S. popularity charts, was at # 4 in 1940. As of 2008, she ranks in at a measly # 713. In 2006, she was the 6oth most popular female name in Spain.

Other forms of Judah and Jude include:

  • Chudas (Aragonese)
  • Judes (Catalan)
  • Judas (Danish/Dutch/German/Lithuanian/Norwegian/Portuguese/Spanish/Swedish: Portuguese ZHOO-dazh)
  • Jude (English/French)
  • Juudas (Finnish)
  • Juda (German/Czech/Croatian/Slovene)
  • Ioudas Ιουδας (Greek: Modern/Biblical)
  • Yehudah יְהוּדָה (Hebrew)
  • Júdás (Hungarian)
  • Yudas (Indonesian)
  • Iúdás (Irish)
  • Giuda (Italian)
  • Yuda (Kiswahili)
  • Iudas (Late Latin)
  • Juda/Judasz (Polish)
  • Júda (Slovakian)
  • Judá (Spanish/Portuguese: Spanish hoo-DAH, Portuguese zhoo-DAH)
  • Hudas (Tagalog/Filipino)
  • Yudel/Yidel (Yiddish)

Other forms of Judith include:

  • Ioudith Ιουδιθ (Biblical Greek)
  • Iudith (Biblical Latin)
  • Jitka (Czech: originally a diminutive form, now used as an independent given name YEET-kah).
  • Judita (Czech/Romansch/Slovak/Slovene)
  • Júdit (Czech)
  • Judit (Danish/Catalan/Hungarian/Norwegian/Spanish/Swedish)
  • Jytte (Danish)
  • Jutka (Dutch/Hungarian: originally diminutive forms, used as independent given names)
  • Juut (Dutch)
  • Judith (English/Dutch/Icelandic: English nickname is usually Judy)
  • Juudit/Juta (Estonian)
  • Judith/Judithe (French: diminutive is Juju)
  • Xudit (Galician)
  • Juditha (German: Jüdie is a diminutive form)
  • Jutta/Jutte (German/Dutch/Polish: originally a diminutive form, used as an independent given name, now considered dated)
  • Yehudit יְהוּדִית (Hebrew)
  • Yudit (Indonesian)
  • Giuditta (Italian: joo-DEET-tah)
  • Yuditi (Kiswahili)
  • Ita (Polish)
  • Judyta (Polish: yoo-DIH-tah)
  • Judite (Portuguese/Latvian: Portuguese pronunciation: zhoo-DEET, Brazilian Portuguese zhoo-JEE-che )
  • Juditta (Romansch)
  • Yudif/Yudita (Russian)
  • Judetta/Judina (Spanish)
  • Hudes (Yiddish)
  • Yutke (Yiddish)

Other notable bearers of the name include Judah Benjamin (1811-1884), former Attorney General of the Confederacy and the first Jewish American to be seriously considered for the Supreme Court and the first Jewish American to serve as a U.S. Senator. It is also borne by British actor, Jude Law (b.1972).

Notable Judiths include:

Judge Judith Scheindlin (b. 1942) an American judge, TV personality and author, and Judy Jetson of the 1950s cartoon series, The Jetsons.

Designated name-days are: October 28 (France: for Jude), May 5 (France: Judith), December 5th (Czech Republic), December 10 (Estonia, Hungary and Latvia).

Thomas

Gender: Masculine
Origin: Aramaic
Meaning: “twin”
(TOM-us)

The Latinized form of the Aramaic Tau’ma which is derived from the word T’oma (תאומא) meaning “twin.” The name was introduced to the world via St. Thomas the Apostle, a character that plays a prominent role in the New Testament. He is best known for his disbelief when he first heard that Christ had resurrected from the dead, hence the saying “doubting Thomas.”

Tau’ma was a nickname given to him to differentiate him from Judas Iscariot, (Thomas’ real name being Judas or Jude). He is also known as Didymos, (the Greek word for twin), and Jude. His evangelization was attributed to the area of Persia and India. Thomas is a very popular name among Indian Christians and Persian Christians. His feast is celebrated on July 3rd. The name was introduced into the English speaking world via the Normans after they had conquered England. Since that time Thomas has been a relatively popular male name.

  • Tomas (Albanian)
  • Touma توما‎, (Arabic)
  • Tovmas (Armenian)
  • Foma (Azeri/Russian)
  • Tomás (Aragonese/Asturian/Spanish)
  • Tomas (Basque)
  • Dammerl (Baverian)
  • Tòmas (Bearnais)
  • Tamaš Тамаш (Belarusian)
  • Toma Тома (Bosnian/Bulgarian/Georgian)
  • Tomaz (Breton)
  • 多馬 Duoma (Chinese Biblical)
  • 湯瑪斯 Tangmasi, 湯瑪士 Tangmashi, 托馬斯 Tuomasi, (Chinese General Translation)
  • Tumasgiu (Corsican)
  • Tomo/Tome (Croatian: occassionally Tomislav is used as a translation, though technically it has no etymological relation to Thomas)
  • Tomáš (Czech)
  • Thomas (Danish/Dutch/English/French/German/Indonesian/Latin/Luxemborgish/Norwegian/Swedish)
  • Maas (Dutch: originally a diminutive form, sometimes used as an independent given name)
  • Toomas (Estonian)
  • Tummas (Faroese)
  • Tuomas/Tuomo (Finnish)
  • Maes (Flemmish)
  • Tomas (Filipino/Tagalog)
  • Theumis (Frisian)
  • Tomé (Galician)
  • Thōmâs Θωμᾶς/Thomás Θωμάς/Didymos Δίδυμος (Greek: Modern)
  • Teom (Hebrew)
  • Tamás (Hungarian)
  • Tómas (Icelandic)
  • Tomás (Irish)
  • Tommasso (Italian)
  • Tommassino (Italian)
  • Tomasiello/Tommasuccio (Italian: obscure)
  • トーマス Tomasu (Japanese)
  • Tomas (Karakalpak: a Turkic language spoken in Uzbekistan)
  • 도마 Doma /Toma (Korean Biblical)
  • 토머스 Tomeoseu/T’omŏsŭ (Korean: General Translation)
  • Thomasê (Kurdish)
  • Toms (Latvian)
  • Tomas (Lithuanian)
  • Томислав, Τоми, Томо, Томас, Τоме (Macedonian)
  • Thoma/Thommen/Oummen/Thommy (Malayalam)
  • Tamihana (Maori)
  • Tumas (Maltese)
  • Tuami (Moroccan-Arabic)
  • Thomé (Occitanian)
  • توماس Tomasp (Persian)
  • Tomasz (Polish: Tomek is a popular diminutive, equivalent to Tommy or Tom)
  • Tomás, Tomé (Portuguese)
  • Tomašis/Tomerdos (Romani: language of the Roma people)
  • Tumasch (Romansch)
  • Tuoms (Saimogaitian: a dialect of Lithuanian)
  • Tomasi (Samoan)
  • Tomasso (Sardinian)
  • Tam/Tòmas (Scottish)
  • Тома Toma (Serbian)
  • Tomáš (Slovakian)
  • Tomaž (Slovene)
  • Tomás (Spanish)
  • Thoma (Swahili)
  • Tāmas தாமஸ்/Tōmā தோமா (Tamil)
  • To-mus โทมัส (Thai)
  • Choma (Ukrainian)
  • Tomaš (Upper Sorbian)
  • Tomaxo (Venetian)
  • Tomos/Twm (Welsh)
  • Teomo (Yiddish)

 

  • Thomasina, Thomasine, Thomazina and Tammy, Tamsin. Popular nicknames include Tom and Tommy.

Zephyr

Gender: Masculine
Origin: Greek
Meaning: “west wind.”
Ζεφυρος
(ZEF-er)

The name is derived from the Greek Zephyros (Ζεφυρος), meaning, “the west wind.”

In Greek mythology, the name is borne by one of the four wind gods, known as the Anemoi.

Zephyr was the god of the west wind; harbinger of gentle breezes and warm air that comes with late spring and early summer. He was the husband of Chloris (greenery) and the father of Carpos (fruit).

Another form is Zephyrinus, which was borne by a 3rd-century martyr and also borne by a Pope.

His Roman counterpart is Favonius.

Other forms include:

  • Zefirinus (Afrikaans)
  • Zèfir/Zeferí (Catalan)
  • Zeperino (Cebuano)
  • Zefirin (Croatian)
  • Zefyrinus (Czech/Danish/Dutch)
  • Zefyr (Danish/German/Norwegian/Polish/Swedish)
  • Zéphyr/Zéphyrin (French)
  • Zephyros Ζεφυρος (Greek)
  • Tzafrir צַפְרִיר (Hebrew)
  • Zephürosz (Hungarian: very obscure)
  • Zefiro (Italian)
  • Zephyrus/Zephyrinus (Latin)
  • Zefyras/Zefyrinas (Lithuanian)
  • Zefiryn (Polish)
  • Zéfiro/Zeferino (Portuguese)
  • Zefirin (Romanian)
  • Céfiro/Ceferino (Spanish/Galician)

Nicknames include Zef.

Feminine forms are

  • Zéphyrine (French)
  • Zeferina (Italian)
  • Zeferyna (Polish)