Virgil

Gender: Masculine
Origin: Latin
Meaning: unknown
Eng (VUR-jəl); Fre (vare-ZHEEL)

The name was borne by famous Latin poet, Publius Vergilius Maro (70–19 BCE), the author of the Aenead, credited for being one of Rome’s most epic poems.

Dante used Virgil as the guide in his Inferno and part of Purgatorio.

The origins of the name are unclear, Virgil itself is derived from the Latin, Virgilius/Vergilius, a Roman family name of uncertain meaning.

At one time, Virgil was one of the most popular male names in the United States. The highest he ranked was in 1907 coming in as the 93rd most popular male name. As of 2010, Virgil no longer appears in the U.S. top 1000

As of 2009, its French counterpart of Virgile was the 333rd most popular male name in France.

Other forms of the name include:

  • Virgiliu (Albanian/Romanian/Sicilian)
  • Virchilio (Aragonese)
  • Virxiliu (Asturian)
  • Virgili (Catalan/Lombard/Occitanian)
  • Virgilije Вергилиј (Croatian/Macedonian/Serbian/Slovene)
  • Virgilius (Dutch/Latin)
  • Vergil (English/German/Plattdeutsch/Ripoarisch/Scandinavian)
  • Virgil (English/Romanian)
  • Vergíliu (Extramaduran)
  • Virgile (French)
  • Virgjili (Frulian)
  • Feirgil/Veirgil (Gaelic)
  • Virxilio (Galician)
  • Virgill (Icelandic)
  • Virgilio (Italian/Spanish)
  • Vergilius (Latin)
  • Vergīlijs (Latvian)
  • Virgilijus (Lithuanian)
  • Virġilju (Maltese)
  • Bergílio (Mirandese)
  • Wergiliusz (Polish)
  • Virgílio (Portuguese)
  • Vergėlėjos (Samogaitian)
  • Vergílius (Slovak)
  • Fyrsil (Welsh)
The name was also borne by an 8th-century Irish saint and missionary, Virgil of Salzburg.
Advertisements

Valentine

Origin: Latin
Meaning: “strong; vigorous; healthy.”
(Eng masc: val-en-TINE; Fre fem: vah-lown-TEEN)

The name is derived from the Roman family name, Valentinus, which is derived from the Latin, valens, meaning: “strong, vigourous; healthy.”

In the modern world, the name is mostly associated with the holiday, it was borne by several early Christian martyrs, one of whom whose feast day happened to coincide with the ancient Roman festival of Lupercalia.

The anglicized form of Valentine is masculine, while in French, Valentine is feminine. This is a natural evolution, as Valentine is actually the feminine form of the French masculine,Valentin.

Valentine does not rank in the U.S. top 1000, but Valentine and Valentin are fairly common names in French-speaking countries.

Currently, Valentin is the 36th most popular male name in Austria, (2010). His rankings in other countries are as follows:

  • # 12 (Hungary, Bálint, 2010)
  • # 40 (France, Valentin, 2009)
  • # 106 (the Netherlands, Valentijn, 2010)
  • # 792 (United States, Valentin, 2010)

Other forms of the masculine include:

  • Valentini (Albanian)
  • Balendin (Basque)
  • Vàledin Валедин (Bulgarian)
  • Valentin Валентин (Bulgarian/Croatian/Czech/Estonian/French/German/Scandinavian/Slovene/Romanian/Russian)
  • Valentí (Catalan)
  • Valentyn (Czech)
  • Valentijn (Dutch: same pronunciation as in English)
  • Valentine (English)
  • Valjo/Valju (Estonian: has a different etymology but has been traditionally used as a cognate for Valentinus)
  • Balantin (Extramadurian)
  • Bálint (Hungarian)
  • Valente (Italian)
  • Valentiniano (Italian)
  • Valentino (Italian)
  • Valento (Italian)
  • Valenzano (Italian)
  • Valenzo (Italian)
  • Valentinus (Latin)
  • Valentins (Latvian)
  • Valentinas (Lithuanian)
  • Walentyn (Polish)
  • Walenty (Polish)
  • Valentim (Portuguese)
  • Ualan (Scottish)
  • Valintinu (Sicilian)
  • Valentín (Slovak/Spanish)
  • Folant (Welsh)

Valentina is currently the 19th most popular female name in Austria, (2010), her rankings in other countries are as follows:

  • # 28 (Italy, 2009)
  • # 47 (Croatia, 2010)
  • # 61 (Slovenia, 2010)
  • # 71 (France, Valentine, 2009)
  • # 81 (Catelonia, 2009)
  • # 91 (Belgium, Valentine, 2009)
  • # 92 (Spain, 2010)
  • # 97 (Germany, 2011)
  • # 152 (United States, 2010)
  • # 444 (the Netherlands 2010)

Other forms include:

  • Valentina Валентина (Catalan/Croatian/German/Hungarian/Italian/Romanian/Russian/Slovene/Spanish)
  • Valentine (French)
  • Valentína (Icelandic/Slovak)
  • Valenta (Italian)
  • Valenzia (Italian)
  • Walentyna (Polish)
  • Valentyna Валентина (Ukrainian)

The designated name-day is of course, February 14.

Sources

  1. Calendarium Romanum (Libreria Editrice Vatican, 1969), p. 117
  2. http://www.behindthename.com/php/search.php?nmd=n&terms=Valentine
  3. http://www.askoxford.com/firstnames/valentine?view=uk
  4. http://saints.sqpn.com/saint-valentine-of-rome/
  5. http://ocafs.oca.org/FeastSaintsLife.asp?FSID=101926
  6. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15254a.htm

Peter

Gender: Masculine
Origin: Greek
Meaning: “rock.”
Eng (PEE-ter)

The name is derived from the Greek Πετρος (Petros) meaning, “rock.”

The name is found in the New Testament as a vernacular translation for the Aramaic Cephas (rock) a nickname designated to the Apostle Simon Bar-Jonah by Jesus. He is known as St. Peter, and Catholics traditionally attribute him as being the first Pope.  Among other denominations, he is considered to be one of Christ’s most prominent apostles.

Due to the associations with the apostle, Peter became an extremely prevalent male name throughout the Christian world.

The name seems to have been in usage in England since early times, but became especially popular after the Norman invasion. During this period, the form of Piers was preferred, being gradually replaced in popularity by Peter over the centuries.

Currently, Peter is 191st most popular male name in the United States, (2009). He has been steadily declining in the United States for the past 10 years, in 2000 he ranked in at # 125. His rankings in other countries, however, has not faltered. His rankings including his vernacular forms are as follows:

  • # 7 Pedro (Brazil, 2009)
  • # 9 Petar (Bulgaria, 2008)
  • # 15 Petr (Czech Republic, 2009)
  • #38 Pierre (France, 2006)
  • # 3 (Greenland, 2003-2004)
  • # 8 (Hungary, 2008)
  • # 33 Petur (Iceland, 2008)
  • # 70 (Ireland, 2008)
  • # 25 Pietro (Italy, 2007)
  • # 8 Pēteris (Latvia, 2005)
  • # 9 Petar (Macedonia, 2006)
  • # 10 Piotr (Poland, 2008)
  • # 3 (Slovakia, 2004)
  • # 59 (Slovenia, 2005)
  • # 50 Pedro (Spain, 2008)

Other forms of the name include:

  • Petrus (Afrikaans/Dutch/German/Indonesian/Latin/Limburgish/Plattdeutsch/Swedish)
  • Pieter (Afrikaans)
  • Pjetër/Pjetri (Albanian)
  • Ṗeṭros ጴጥሮስ (Amharic/Ethiopian)
  • Pero (Aragonese)
  • Bedros/Pedros Պետրոս (Armenian)
  • Botros/Boutros/Butros بطرس (Arabic/Coptic)
  • Pedru (Asturian/Konkoni)
  • Pyotr (Azeri)
  • Betiri (Basque)
  • Kepa (Basque)
  • Peio (Basque)
  • Peru (Basque)
  • Petri (Basque)
  • Piatro Пятро (Belarusian)
  • Piotr Пётр (Belarusian/Polish)
  • Pêr (Breton)
  • Pierrick (Breton)
  • Penko Пенко (Bulgarian)
  • Petar Петар (Bulgarian/Croatian/Macedonian/Serbian)
  • Pere (Catalan)
  • Peder (Cornish/Danish/Lombard/Norwegian)
  • Petru (Corsican/Romanian/Sicilian)
  • Pyè (Creole)
  • Pero (Croatian/Serbian)
  • Petar Петар (Croatian/Macedonian/Serbian/Slovene)
  • Petr (Czech)
  • Pelle (Danish/Norwegian/Swedish: originally a diminutive, now occasionally used as an independent given name. PEL-le)
  • Peer (Danish/Dutch/German)
  • Per (Danish/Faroese/Norwegian/Swedish)
  • Peter (Danish/Dutch/English/German/Luxembourgish/Norwegian/Slovak/Swedish)
  • Peeter (Estonian)
  • Peiru (Extramadura)
  • Pætur/Petur (Faroese)
  • Patras پطرس (Farsi)
  • Pekka (Finnish)
  • Petteri (Finnish)
  • Petri (Finnish)
  • Pietari (Finnish)
  • Pierre (French)
  • Piter/Pier/Pit (Frisian)
  • P’et’re პეტრე (Georgian)
  • Petros Πέτρος (Greek)
  • Pathros (Hindi)
  • Péter (Hungarian)
  • Petres (Hungarian)
  • Peto (Hungarian)
  • Pétur (Icelandic)
  • Peadar (Irish-Gaelic)
  • Pietro (Italian/Albanian)
  • Petronius (Latin)
  • Pēteris (Latvian)
  • Petras (Lithuanian)
  • Pir (Luxembourgish)
  • Petre Петре (Macedonian/Romanian)
  • Pathrose (Malayalam)
  • Pietru (Maltese)
  • Peddyr (Manx)
  • Petera (Maori)
  • Petter (Norwegian/Swedish)
  • Pèir/Pèire/Pèr (Occitanian)
  • Pedro (Portuguese/Spanish)
  • Pêro (Portuguese: archaic)
  • Pidru (Quecha)
  • Peadar/Peader/Peder/Peidar/Peider (Romansch)
  • Pyotr Пётр (Russian)
  • Pedru/Perdu/Pretu (Sardinian)
  • Peadar/Peadair (Scottish-Gaelic)
  • Pyjter/Piter (Silesian)
  • Pětr (Sorbian)
  • Petero (Swahili)
  • Pär (Swedish)
  • Pethuru (Tamil)
  • Raayappar (Tamil)
  • Petro Петро (Ukrainian)
  • Piter (Uzbek)
  • Piero (Venetian)
  • Piitre (Vöro: an Eastern Estonian dialect)
  • Pedr (Welsh)

In French, Pierre is used in a number of compound names. Some of the most common include:

Some common Italian compound names include: Piergiuseppe, Pietropaolo, Pierpaolo, Pietrantonio, Pierantonio, Pierluigi , Piergiorgio , Pietrangelo, Pierangelo, Pierce, Pierfrancesco, Piermaria and Piersilvio

Its feminine form of Petra was once a very popular name in German-speaking countries, but is now considered rather dated. Throughout Central Europe, however, she is experiencing a strong trend. Her current rankings are as follows:

  • # 46 (Czech Republic, 2009)
  • # 9 (Hungary, 2008)
  • # 46(Slovenia, 2005)

Feminine forms include:

  • Peta (Afrikaans/English)
  • Penka Пенка (Bulgarian)
  • Petra(Bulgarian/Croatian/Czech/Dutch/Finnish/German/Greek/Hungarian/Scandinavian/Serbian/Slovak/Slovene/Spanish)
  • Petrina (Croatian/German)
  • Pernille (Danish/Norwegian)
  • Petrea (Danish)
  • Petrine (Danish/German/Norwegian)
  • Petronella (Danish/Norwegian/Swedish)
  • Pietronella (Dutch)
  • Parnel/Pernel (English: archaic)
  • Peronel (English: archaic)
  • Petronel (English: archaic)
  • Petriina (Finnish)
  • Pernelle (French)
  • Pernette (French)
  • Péroline (French)
  • Péronelle (French)
  • Perrenotte (French)
  • Perrette (French)
  • Perrine (French)
  • Pétronelle (French)
  • Peyronne (French)
  • Pierrine/Pierrette (French)
  • Pétronille (French)
  • Peekje (Frisian)
  • Peterke (Frisian)
  • Petje (Frisian)
  • Petke (Frisian)
  • Pierke/Pierkje (Frisian)
  • Pieterke (Frisian)
  • Pietje/Piertje (Frisian)
  • Petrónia (Hungarian)
  • Petronia (Italian/Latin/Polish)
  • Petronilla (Italian/Latin)
  • Piera/Pierina (Italian)
  • Pieretta (Italian)
  • Pieruccia (Italian)
  • Pietra/Pietrina (Italian)
  • Pietruccia (Italian)
  • Petronela (Polish/Romanian)
  • Petrona (Spanish)
  • Pernilla (Swedish)

Italian female compound forms include: Pierangela and Pieranna.

Common German pet forms are: Pedi, Petzi and Pezi

The designated name-days are: April 29 (Hungary) and June 29 (Hungary, Germany, Slovakia, Sweden).

Sources

Livia, Liviana, Livy

Origin: Latin
Meaning: debated
(LIV-ee-uh); (liv-ee-AH-nah)
Eng Masc (LIVE-ee)

The name Livius is a Roman family name, which has two possible meanings. One is that it is from the Latin, liveo, meaning, “to envy” and another possibility is that it is from the Latin, lividus, meaning, “blue.”

Both the masculine and feminine forms were borne by notable personages.

It was borne by Titus Livius, known in English as Livy, a famous Roman historian.

It was also borne by Livia Drusilla (circ. 14 CE), a Roman Empress and third wife of Augustus.

Currently, Livia ranks in as the 948th most popular female name in the United States, (2008). Her rankings in other countries are as follows:

  • # 95 (Hungary, 2008)
  • # 182 (the Netherlands, 2009)
  • # 86 (Sweden, 2009)

Other forms of the feminine include:

  • Lívia (Catalan/Portuguese)
  • Livie (Czech: LEEV-yeh)
  • Livia (Czech/Dutch/English/German/Hungarian/Italian/Romanian/Scandinavian/Slovak/Spanish)
  • Livie (French: lee-VEE)
  • Liviana (Italian)
  • Livilla (Latin: used as a diminutive form in Ancient Rome)
  • Liwia (Polish)
  • Livija (Slovene)

Masculine forms include:

  • Livi (Catalan)
  • Livije (Croatian/Slovene)
  • Livy (English)
  • Live (French)
  • Líviu (Extramadurian)
  • Livio (Italian/Spanish)
  • Liviano (Italian)
  • Livianus (Latin)
  • Livius (Latin)
  • Līvijs (Latvian)
  • Livijus (Lithuanian)
  • Liviu (Romanian)
  • Liwiusz (Polish)
  • Lívio (Portuguese)

The designated name-days are February 12 (Hungary) and February 20 (Slovakia).

Sources

  1. http://www.behindthename.com
  2. www.askoxford.com
  3. www.roman-emperors.org
  4. Tacitus Annals. 1.3; 1.6. (The Works of Tacitus tr. by Alfred John Church and William Jackson Brodribb 1864-1877),

Alexander, Alexandra

Origin: Greek
Meaning: “defender of man.”

The name is composed of the Greek elements, ἀλέξω (alexos), meaning “to defend; to help” and the genitive Greek noun, ἀνδρός (andros) “belonging to man.” Hence, the name would roughly translate as “defender of man” or “helper of man.”

The name is extremely ancient, and possibly, even pre-Hellenistic, the oldest record of the name dates back to the Mycenean period, where the feminine form of Alexandra, is found written in Linear B.

In Greek mythology, Alexander was another name used for the hero, Paris and Alexandra was used as an epithet for the goddess, Hera.

The name is also found several times in the Bible and the most famous bearer in history has to possibly be attributed to Alexander the Great, a 4th-century Greek emperor who expanded his empire as far away as Asia, spreading his fame and his name.

Later the name was borne by several saints and kings throughout Europe, including Tsar Alexander I of Russia.

Currently, Alexander is the 6th most popular male name for boys in the United States, (2008), the lowest that Alexander ever ranked in U.S. naming history was in 1959, coming in at # 233.

In other countries, his rankings are as follows:

  • # 19 (Australia, 2008)
  • # 8 (Austria, 2008)
  • # 37 (Belgium, 2006)
  • # 3 (Bulgaria, 2008)
  • # 14 (Canada, B.C., 2008)
  • # 44 (Chile, 2006)
  • # 19 (England/Wales, 2008)
  • # 1 (Estonia, 2007)
  • # 9 (Finland, among Finnish-speakers)
  • # 99 (Hungary, 2008)
  • # 5 (Iceland, 2004-2007)
  • # 5 (Isle of Man, 2008)
  • # 2  Alessandro (Italy, 2007)
  • # 4 Alecsander/Alessandro (Liechtenstein, 2008)
  • # 1 Aleksander (Macedonia, 2006)
  • # 5  Alejandro (Mexico, 2008)
  • # 97 (the Netherlands, 2008)
  • # 10 (Norway, 2008)
  • # 14 Aleksander (Poland, Warsaw, 2009)
  • # 2 Alexandru (Romania, 2008)
  • # 1  (Russia, Moscow, 2007)
  • # 11 (Scotland, 2008)
  • # 2 Alejandro (Spain, 2008)
  • # 2 Àlex (Spain, Catalonia, 2008)
  • # 6 (Sweden, 2008)
  • # 1 Alessandro (Switzerland, among Italian-speakers, 2008)

Other forms of Alexander include:

  • Aleksandër/Sandër/Skënder (Albanian: Aleko, Aleks, Leka, Lekë, Leksi and Leks are diminutive forms)
  • Eskender (Amharic/Ethiopian)
  • Iskander الاسكندر / اسكندر (Arabic)
  • Alixandre (Aragonese)
  • Aleksandr/Alexandr Ալեքսանդր (Armenian)
  • Aleksan/Alexan Ալեքսան (Armenian)
  • Aleq/Alik Ալեք/ Ալիկ (Armenian: originally diminutive forms, now used as independent given names)
  • Alexandru (Asturian/Romanian)
  • İsgəndər (Azeri)
  • Alakshendra/Alekzandar (Bangali)
  • Iskandar/Skandar (Bangali)
  • Iskәndәr Искәндәр (Bashkir)
  • Alesander (Basque)
  • Aliaksandr Аляксандp (Belarusian: Aleś Алeсь is usually the diminutive form)
  • Alaksander Аляксандаp (Belarusian: Tarashkevitsa spelling)
  • Aleksandar (Bosnian/Croatian: Saša is the diminutive form)
  • Aleksandar Александър (Bulgarian: Sasho Сашо and Aleks Aлекс are the diminutives)
  • Alexandre/Àlex/Xandre (Catalan/Galician)
  • Lisandru (Corsican/Lombard)
  • Alexandr (Czech)
  • Alexander (Czech/Dutch/English/Estonian/German/Icelandic/Norwegian/Swedish)
  • Alexander/Aleksander (Danish)
  • Xander (English)
  • Sander (Dutch/Estonian/Norwegian: contracted form)
  • Aleksander (Estonian)
  • Alejandru (Extrumaduran: a dialect of Spanish)
  • Aleksandur (Faroese)
  • Aleksanteri (Finnish)
  • Santeri/Santtu (Finnish: contracted forms)
  • Alexandre (French)
  • Aleksander (Frisian)
  • Alexandré/Aleksandre ალექსანდრე (Georgian)
  • Aleko ალეკო/Lexo ლექსო (Georgian: contracted forms)
  • Aléxandros Αλέξανδρος (Greek: Modern)
  • Alakshendra अलक्षेन्द्र (Hindi)
  • Sándor (Hungarian)
  • Iskandar (Indonesian/Malay)
  • Alasandar/Alastar/Alsander (Irish-Gaelic)
  • Alessandro (Italian: Ale is a diminutive form)
  • Alessandrino (Italian: obscure)
  • Sandro (Italian: a diminutive form now used exclusively as an independent given name)
  • Sandrino (Italian: originally a diminutive form, used as an independent given name, obscure)
  • Askander/Eskander/Îskenderê (Kurdish)
  • İskender Искендер (Kyrgyz)
  • Aleksandrs (Latvian)
  • Alexandrus (Latin)
  • Aleksandras (Lithuanian)
  • Lisandor (Lombard)
  • Aleksandar Александар (Macedonian: Alek Алек, Atse Аце, Atso Ацо and Sasho Сашо are diminutive forms)
  • Chandy ചാണ്ടി (Malayalam)
  • Lixandru (Maltese)
  • Alxandre (Mirandese: a dialect of Portuguese)
  • Aleksandr/Alexandr Алєѯандръ (Old Church Slavonic)
  • Sikandar سکندر (Persian)
  • Aleksander (Polish: more common form, diminutives include, Alek, Aleks and Olek.)
  • Oleksander (Polish: archaic form)
  • Alexandre (Portuguese)
  • Alexandro (Portuguese: obscure)
  • Alesch (Romansch)
  • Alexi (Romansch)
  • Aleksandr Александр (Russian: diminutive forms include: Alik Алик, Sasha Саша, Sashka Сашка, Sashok Сашок, Sashkin Сашкин, Shura Шура, Shurik Шурик and Sanyok Санёк )
  • Alasdair/Alastair/Alistair/Alisdair/Aldair (Scotch-Gaelic)
  • Aleksandar Александар (Serbian: Aca Аца, Aleks Алекс, Sale Сале, and Saša Саша are diminutives)
  • Alessandru (Sardinian)
  • Alissandru (Sicilian)
  • Lisciànniru/Lisciànnuru/Lisciànnaru (Sicilian)
  • Aleksander (Slovene: Aleks, Sandi and Sašo are the diminutives)
  • Alejandro (Spanish: Alejo, Alex, Jano and Jandro are the diminutive forms)
  • Aleksandar (Tamil)
  • İskender (Turkish)
  • Olexandr/Oleksandr Олександр (Ukrainian: Oles Олесь and Sashko Сашко are the diminutives)
  • Iskandar (Uzbek)
  • Alecsander (Welsh)
  • Sender/Senderl סענדער (Yiddish)

As for its feminine form, it has also been borne by several monarchs and saints throughout history. Currently, she is the 61st most popular female name in the United States, the highest she ranked was at # 26 in 1995-1996, the lowest she ever ranked was in 1936 coming in as the 991st most popular female name. Her rankings in other countries is as follows:

  • # 74 (Australia, 2007)
  • # 5 (Bulgaria, 2008)
  • # 53 (Canada, B.C., 2008)
  • # 45 (Chile, 2006)
  • # 90 (England/Wales, 2008)
  • # 21 (Hungary, 2008)
  • # 67 (Ireland, 2007)
  • # 7 (Macedonia, 2006)
  • # 397 (the Netherlands, 2008)
  • # 99 (Norway, 2007)
  • # 8 Aleksandra (Poland, 2oo8)
  • # 4 (Romania, 2008)
  • # 77 (Sweden, 2007)

Alexandra has also spun off Sandra, which is currently the 7th most popular female name in Estonia, and ranks in as the # 441st most popular female name in the United States.

In the United States, the highest she peaked was in 1947, coming in as the 5th most popular female name. Sandy is the preferred pet form.

In other countries, her rankings are as follows:

  • # 58 (Norway, 2008)
  • # 30 (Spain, 2006)

Its more elaborated version of Alexandria, currently ranks in as the 189th most popular female name in the United States (2008).

Other forms of Alexandra include:

  • Aleksandra Александра (Bulgarian/Croatian/Estonian/Polish/Russian/Serbian/Slovene)
  • Aleksandrina Александрина (Bulgarian/Russian)
  • Alexandra (Catalan/Czech/Dutch/English/French/German/Greek/Hungarian/Portuguese/Romanian/Scandinavian/Slovak)
  • Alexandrine (Danish/French/German)
  • Sandra (Dutch/English/Finnish/German/Italian/Latvian/Lithuanian/Portuguese/Scandinavian/Slovene)
  • Xandra (Dutch)
  • Alexandria (English/German)
  • Alexandrina (English: the first name of Queen Victoria)
  • Sandrine (French)
  • Szandra (Hungarian)
  • Alessandra (Italian)
  • Alessandrina (Italian)
  • Sandrina (Italian/Spanish)
  • Lisandra (Maltese)
  • Alexandreina (Romanian)
  • Sanda (Romanian/Croatian)
  • Alastríona/Alastrina (Scotch-Gaelic)
  • Alissandra (Sicilian)
  • Alejandra (Spanish)
  • Oleksandra Олександра (Romanian)

Common English diminutive forms for both genders are Alex, Lex, and Sandy. For males, Ander, Andy and Xander, for females, Alexa, Lexa, Lexie, Sandra and Xandra.

The designated name-days for Alexander are: February 27 (Slovakia), November 19 (Russia) and December 12 (Sweden).

The designated name-days for Alexandra are: April 21st (Czech Republic), May 6/31 (Russia), May 18 (Hungary), June 23 (Russia), August 30 (Greece), Janury 2nd (Slovakia) and February 17 (Sweden)

A Hungarian male diminutive is Sanyi.

Polish diminutives are: Ola, Olka and Olusia.

In Russian, common unisexual diminutives, are Sasha and Shura. Popular feminine diminutives are: Lesya Леся,

A Romanian male diminutive form is Sandu.

An obscure Scottish male diminutive is Sawney.