Gender: Masculine
Origin: Latin
Meaning “Roman.”
Eng Masc. (ROH-men) Eng Fem. (roh-MANE); Fre Masc. (hroh-MAHn); Fre Fem. (hroh-MEHN); Pol (ROH-mahn)

The name’s meaning is clear from its very first utterance, most renowned in the State’s through Polish director and film maker, Roman Polanski, it was the name of a Christian martyr who died under Diocletian.

In recent years, the name has had a peak in popularity, it currently ranks in as the 157th most popular male name in the United States (2011), and seems to be rising.

His rankings in other countries are as follows:

  • # 36 (Romain, Belgium, 2008)
  • # 39 (Romain, France, 2010)
  • # 228 (Roman, France, 2010)
  • # 494 (Netherlands, 2011)

Its designated name-days are: February 23 (Slovakia); February 28/29 (Poland), May 28 (Estonia), August 9 (Czech Republic/Poland), October 6/23 (Poland), November 18 (Poland).

Roman is used in Czech, Estonian, German, Polish, Slovakian and Slovenian.

Other forms of the name are:

  • Roman Роман (Croatian/English/German/Norwegian/Polish/Romansch/Russian/Slovak/Slovene/Swedish/Ukrainian)
  • Romain (French)
  • Romanos (Greek)
  • Román (Hungarian/Spanish)
  • Romano (Italian)
  • Romanello/Romanino (Italian: obscure)
  • Romanus (Latin)
  • Romanas (Lithuanian)
  • Reman (Poitvin)
  • Romans (Poitvin)
  • Rouman (Poivin)

In Polish, Romek is the diminutive form.

Feminine forms are:

  • Romana (Croatian/Czech/Italian/Lithuanian/Polish/Slovak/Slovene)
  • Romaine (English/French)
  • Romane (French)
  • Romána (Hungarian)
  • Romanella (Italian)
  • Romanina (Italian)
  • Romanita (Italian/Spanish)
  • Romina (Italian/Spanish)
  • Romanela (Polish: very obscure)


Gender: Feminine
Origin: Hebrew
Meaning: debated
Eng (LEE-uh); Heb (LAY-ah)

The name is found in the Old Testament as the name of the sister of Rachel and the first wife of Jacob.

In Jewish tradition, Leah is considered a matriarch and among Christians, she is believed to be the direct ancestor of Jesus.

Its exact meaning and origins are debated. Many scholars believe that it is from the Hebrew לְאָה (le’ah), meaning, “weary.” Other sources have suggested that it is from an Akkadian source meaning, “lady; mistress.”

In the English speaking world and on the continent, it was not common outside the Jewish community until after the Protestant Reformation.

Currently, Leah ranks in as the 24th most popular female name, (2010) and this is the highest the name has ranked in U.S. naming history. She is quite popular in other countries, her rankings in other countries are as follows:

  • # 1 (Lea, Faroe Islands, 2010)
  • # 1 (Léa, Monaco, 2009)
  • # 1 (Lea, Romansch-speaking, Switzerland, 2010)
  • # 2 (Léa, French-speaking, Switzerland, 2010)
  • # 2 (Lea, Liechtenstein, 2010)
  • # 3 (Léa, France, 2009)
  • # 3 (Lea, Luxembourg, 2009)
  • # 5 (Lea, Austria, 2010)
  • # 5 (Lea, German-speaking, Switzerland, 2010)
  • # 5 (Léa, Belgium, 2010)
  • # 5 (Lea/Leah, Germany, 2011)
  • # 9 (Lea, Malta, 2010)
  • # 14 (Leah, Norway, 2010)
  • # 15 (Leah, Ireland, 2010)
  • # 17 (Lea, Croatia, 2009)
  • # 20 (Leah, Northern Ireland, 2010)
  • # 25 (Leah, Scotland, 2010)
  • # 39 (Lea, Slovenia, 2010)
  • # 46 (Lea, Denmark, 2010)
  • # 49 (Lea, Sweden, 2010)
  • # 50 (Leah, England/Wales, 2010)
  • # 55 (Leia, Sweden, 2010)
  • # 56 (Leah, Canada, BC, 2010)
  • # 59 (Lia, Slovenia, 2010)
  • # 63 (Leah, New Zealand, 2010)
  • # 89 (Lea, Norway, 2010)
  • # 95 (Lia, Hungary, 2010)
  • # 96 (Leah, Australia, NSW, 2010)
  • # 299 (Lia, France, 2009)
  • # 320 (Leia, France, 2009)
  • # 356 (Lia, Netherlands, 2010)
  • # 386 (Leah, Netherlands, 2010)
  • # 418 (Lea, Netherlands, 2010)
  • # 566 (Lea, United States, 2010)
  • # 830 (Leia, United States, 2010)

Other forms of the name include:

  • Lia (Catalan/Czech/Hungarian/Italian/Portuguese/Biblical Latin/Slovene)
  • Lea (Czech/Dutch/Estonian/Finnish/German/Hungarian/Icelandic/Norwegian/Polish/Romansch/Scandinavian/Slovak/Slovene/Spanish/Turkish)
  • Leah (English/Ethiopian/German/Scandinavian)
  • Leea (Finnish)
  • Leija (Finnish)
  • Leja (Finnish)
  • Lessu (Finnish)
  • Léa (French)
  • Leaette/Liette (French: originally a diminutive form, used as an independent given name, especially among French Huguenots).
  • Lía (Galician/Spanish)
  • Leia Λεια (Greek: Biblical)
  • Léá (Irish-Gaelic)
  • Lija/Liya Лия (Russian)
  • Lejá (Sami)

Common Czech diminutives include:

  • Leana
  • Leí
  • Leonka
  • Leoša
  • Leuška
  • Leúšik
  • Lienka
  • Liuška

The designated name-days are: January 5 (Estonia/Finland), March 22 (France), April 29 (Slovak), June 26 (Sweden).

Anthony, Antonia

Origin: Latin
Meaning: unknown

The masculine English name, Anthony, is currently the 7th most popular male name in the United States.

The name is derived from a Roman family name, Antonius, which is of speculated origins, it is suspected to be of Etruscan heritage and it was borne by Marcus Antonius, (Marc Antony), who ruled the Roman Empire jointly with Caesar Augustus during the 1st-century B.C.E. His romance with Cleopatra is retold in Shakespeare’s tragedy, Antony and Cleopatra (1606).

The name was popularized in the Christian world due to the cult of St. Anthony the Great, an Egyptian hermit from the 3rd-century C.E. He is mostly noted for his establishment of Christian monasticism, another famous saint is Anthony of Padua, a 13th-century saint, who is known as the patron saint of Portugal and of lost items.

Originally, Antony was the more common form used in the English speaking world, and still is, to a certain extent, in the United Kingdom. The original English pronunciation was AN-tuh-nee, but AN-thuh-nee can also be heard in certain areas of the United States, particularly in the Midwest.

The lowest that Anthony has ranked in United States naming history was in 1885 when he came in as the 105th most popular male name.

His ranking in other countries is as follows:

  • # 48 (Australia, 2007)
  • # 33 Antoine (Belgium, 2006)
  • # 55 (Canada, B.C., 2008)
  • # 16 Antoine (France, 2006)
  • # 70 (France, 2006)
  • # 74 Antonin (France, 2006)
  • # 71 (Ireland, 2007)
  • # 312 (the Netherlands, 2008)
  • # 22 (Spain, 2006)

Its continental form of Anton, has always been a popular choice throughout Northern and Central Europe, in the United States, he is currently the 832nd most popular male name-2008, the highest he ever ranked in U.S. naming history was in 1885 coming in as the 175th most popular male name.

In other countries, his rankings are as follows:

  • # 4 (Finland, among Swedish-speakers, 2007)
  • # 11 (Sweden, 2007)

The feminine form of Antonia, currently does not rank in the U.S. top 1000, she is currently the 5th most popular female name in Chile-2008.

In the Netherlands, its diminutive form of Teun is currently the 36th most popular male name (2008).

Other forms of Anthony include:

  • Antón (Aragonese)
  • Antoniu (Asturian/Romanian/Sicilian)
  • Andoni (Basque)
  • Antolin (Basque)
  • Antton (Basque)
  • Anteng (Bavarian)
  • Dane (Bavarian: not to be confused with the English name Dane, this is pronounced: DAH-neh)
  • Anton Антон ანტონ(Breton/Bulgarian/Dutch/Estonian/Georgian/German/Maltese/Romanian/Russian/Scandinavian/Slovene/Ukrainian)
  • Antoun (Breton)
  • Andon Андон (Bulgarian/Albanian)
  • Antonij Антоний (Bulgarian)
  • Antoni (Catalan/Polish/Romansch: in Catalan, Tonet is the diminutive form. In Polish, the pet form is Antek)
  • Antone (Corsican: Antó is the diminutive form)
  • Ante/Anto (Croatian)
  • Antun (Croatian)
  • Antonín (Czech)
  • Anthonie/Antonie (Dutch)
  • Antheunis/Anthonis (Dutch)
  • Antonius (Dutch/Latin)
  • Antoon (Dutch)
  • Teun (Dutch: originally a diminutive form, now used as an independent given name).
  • Teunis/Theunis (Dutch: originally a diminutive form, now used exclusively as an independent given name)
  • Ton (Dutch/Limburgish)
  • Anteneh (Est0nian)
  • Tõnis (Estonian: originally a diminutive form, also used as an independent given name)
  • Anttoni (Finnish)
  • Antoine (French)
  • Antonin (French/Romansch)
  • Tinus (Frisian)
  • Antain/Antaine/Antoin/Antóin (Gaelic-Irish)
  • Antônios Αντώνιος/Antónis Αντώνης (Greek: modern)
  • Akoni/Anakoni (Hawaiian)
  • Antal (Hungarian)
  • Antoníus (Icelandic)
  • Totono (Indonesian)
  • Antonello (Italian)
  • Antonetto/Antonietto (Italian: obscure archaic diminutive form that was used as an independent given name)
  • Antoniano (Italian)
  • Antonico (Italian)
  • Antonillo (Italian)
  • Antonino (Italian: Nino is the common diminutive form)
  • Antoniuccio/Antonuccio (Italian: archaic form)
  • Antoniusso (Italian: archaic form)
  • Antuono (Italian: archaic, possibly a corruption of the French Antoine)
  • Antoninus (Latin)
  • Antons (Latvian)
  • Tun/Tunnes (Lexumburgish)
  • Antanas (Lithuanian: more common form)
  • Antonijus (Lithuanian)
  • Tonìn (Neopolitan)
  • Tonik (Norwegian: obscure form)
  • Titoan/Titouan (Occitanian/Provençal)
  • Tönnies, Tüns (Plattdeutsch)
  • Antoniusz (Polish: obscure form)
  • António (Portuguese: European)
  • Antônio (Portuguese: Brazilian)
  • Tonnies/Tünnes (Ripoarisch)
  • Antieni (Romansch)
  • Antòni (Sardinian/Occitanian: diminutive form is Tottoi)
  • Antonije Антоније (Serbian)
  • ‘Ntonio (Sicilian)
  • Antonio (Spanish/Italian: Toño and Tonito are the Spanish diminutive forms)
  • Done (Swabian)
  • Antümi (Turkish)
  • Antonij Антоній (Ukrainian)

Various feminine forms include:

  • Antònia (Catalan)
  • Antonieta (Catalan)
  • Antonija Антонија (Croatian/Serbian/Slovene)
  • Antonína (Czech/Slovak)
  • Antonie (Czech: ahn-TONE-yeh)
  • Antonia (Dutch/Italian/Polish/Romansch/Slovene/Spanish)
  • Tonneke (Dutch)
  • Antonie (French)
  • Antonine/Tonine (French: Tonine was originally a diminutive form and is now occasionally used as an independent given name)
  • Antoinette (French/Dutch)
  • Toinette (French: originally a diminutive form, now used as an independent given name)
  • Toinon (French: originally a diminutive form, occasionally used as a diminutive form)
  • Antía (Galician)
  • Antonella (Italian)
  • Antonetta/Antonietta (Italian)
  • Antonica (Italian)
  • Antonilla (Italian)
  • Antonina Антонина (Italian/Polish/Russian: Tosia is the Polish diminutive form and Nina is the Italian diminutive form)
  • Antonita (Italian/Spanish: originally a pet form, now used as an independent given name)
  • Titoana/Titouane (Occitanian/Gascon/Provençal)
  • Antónia (Portuguese/Bearnais/Hungarian/Slovak)
  • Tonia (Romansch)
  • Tonka (Slovene: originally a diminutive form, used as an independent given name)

A common English diminutive form for both the masculine and the feminine is Tony, in French, common diminutive forms are Toine, Toinou and Togne, for males.

Italian feminine diminutive forms are: Tonia, Tonina, Tona, NinaNinetta and Ninuccia. Italian masculine diminutives are: Tonio, Tonello, Tonino, Tonuccio, Nino, Ninuccio, Totò, Toni and Tony.

Italian combined forms are Antonmaria, Antoniomaria and Antonangelo.

Lucia, Lucille, Lucy, Lucian, Lucius

Origin: Latin
Meaning: “light.”

Today is December 13, said to be the darkest night of the year, and also the feast of St. Lucy, whose name appropriately means “light.” Contrary to popular belief, Lucy is the English form of Lucia, and is not a nickname that later became an independent given name, in fact, Lucy was fairly common in Medieval England, particularly after the Norman Conquest in 1066. The latinate form of Lucia, is a feminine version of the Latin, Lucius, which was a Roman praenomen derived from the Latin word lux meaning “light.”

The name was popularized by a 4th-century Sicilian martyr, who, according to legend, was a beautiful Christian woman of noble lineage. She was particularly known for her striking eyes, and when a local pagan suitor tried to force her to marry him, she spent the entire night gouging her own eyes out, presenting them on a platter to the lovelorn nobleman the next day, proclaiming that if he loved her eyes so much, he could marry them instead of her. St. Lucy was immediately tortured and put to death and as a result, she is considered the patron saint of the blind.

Her feast day in Sweden is an especially popular celebration. Each year a girl is chosen to represent the saint, while leading a procession of singing white clad men and women. In older traditions, it was usually the oldest girl in the household who was picked, but since becoming a school or city festival, the title is either given to the prettiest girl or the most popular girl, sometimes done by popular demand of the populace, or school, in which the procession is held. The Sankta Lucia wears a wreath of lit candles upon her head and a red sash around her waist, afterwards, glög and lussekatte, (a type of Saffron biscuit),are served. Its popularity in Scandinavia may be due to some ancient pre-Christian roots, in which the early Germanic tribes would fend off the dark wintery nights with a procession of candles, its true origins have been somewhat lost to history, but there is a Scandinavian legend that claims that Saint Lucy appeared to a band of lost vikings, and lead them back safely to shore. Thereafter, Lucy became a popular saint among the Scandinavians.

The holiday is also celebrated in some parts of the United States, especially in Minnesota, where there are large Scandinavian enclaves, as well as in Norway, and among the Swedish speaking populations of Finland and in Estonia and Latvia.

Lucille is a derivative of the Latin feminine name, Lucilla, which was an old Latin diminutive form of Lucia. It was popularized as an independent given name, early on, due to the popularity of a 3rd century Roman martyr.

A modern famous bearer was Lucille Ball (1911-1989), a famous American actress and comedienne, known for her popular sitcom, I Love Lucy.

Lucille currently ranks in as the 613th most popular female name in the United States, she did experience a peak in popularity a the beginning of the 20th century, ranking in the highest back in 1919, coming in as the 27th most popular female name.

Its masculine form of Lucius, was a fairly common Roman praenomen during the Roman Republic and Roman Empire. It was borne by two kings of Etruria, and it was also borne by the Roman statesman, orator and philosopher, Lucius Annaeus Seneca. Lucius is also found in the New Testament, the name of a minor character, an Antiochan Christian. In addition, it was borne by three popes and a 3rd century male saint.

Lucianus, another male praenomen, is related to Lucius, but with slightly different meaning, the meaning refers to one who carries or bears light.

As of 2008, Lucian was the 810th most popular male name in the United States.

Other forms of the names include:


  • Drita (Albanian: literally means “light” in Albanian, it is sometimes used as an alternative for Lucia).
  • Luzía (Aragonese)
  • Lusia (Breton)
  • Llúcia (Catalan)
  • Lucija Луција (Croatian/Latvian/Serbian: loot-SEE-yah)
  • Jasna (Croatian/Serbian: literally means “light” occasionally used as an alternative for Lucy. YAHS-nah)
  • Lucie (Czech: LOOT-syeh)
  • Lucia (Danish/Dutch/Corsican/Estonian/Norwegian/Romanian/Slovakian/Slovene/Swedish)
  • Luus (Dutch/Limburgish)
  • Lucy/Lucia (English: older pronunciation of the latter is LOO-shah, and in modern times, often pronounced loo-SEE-ah)
  • Lusia (Faroese)
  • Lukki/Lukka (Finnish)
  • Luusi/Luusia (Finnish)
  • Luce/Lucie (French)
  • Lucette (French: initially a diminutive form, now used as an independent given name, though considered very dated)
  • Luzie (Fruilian)
  • Lucia/Luzei/Luzia/Luzie/Luzi (German)
  • Zeia (German: old Pet form of Luzei, very obscure)
  • Loukia Λουκία (Greek: Modern)
  • Luca/Lúcia (Hungarian: former is pronounced LOOT-sah)
  • Lúcía/Lúsía (Icelandic)
  • Luce (Italian: LOO-chay)
  • Lucetta/Lucietta (Italian: initially diminutive forms, now used as independent given names)
  • Lucia (Italian: loo-CHEE-ah)
  • Luciella (Italian: originally a diminutive form, now used as an independent given name)
  • Lux (Latin: directly from the Latin word for “light” it is occasionally used as a given name in the English speaking world, and it was further popularized by the Eugenides book The Virgin Suicides, in which the lead character is named Lux Lisbon).
  • Liucija (Lithuanian: lyoot-SEE-yah).
  • Luċija (Maltese: loo-CHEE-yah)
  • Ruhia/Ruihi/Ruruhi (Maori)
  • Løssi (Norwegian: dialectical form of Lucy, from the regions of Møre and Romsdal).
  • Lucja (Polish: LOOT-syah)
  • Łucja (Polish: WOOT-syah)
  • Lúcia (Portuguese: LOOS-yah)
  • Luzia (Portuguese: loo-ZEE-uh)
  • Luziya/Svetlana (Russian: the latter is from the Old Slavonic meaning “light” and is sometimes used as an alternative form Lucy)
  • Liùsaidh (Scottish)
  • Lucìa (Sicilian)
  • Lucía (Spanish/Galician: loo-THEE-ah in Iberian Spanish and loo-SEE-ah in Latin American Spanish)
  • Luz (Spanish/Portuguese: literally ” light” in Spanish and Portuguese, it has been used as a variation for the Latin Lucia. LOOTH-Iberian Spanish LOOS-Latin American Spanish, LOOZH-Portuguese)
  • Luci (Swedish/Norwegian)
  • Lussa (Swedish: very old and obscure form of Lucy)
  • Lukia/Lucia (Ukrainian)
  • Lùsia (Venetian)
  • Lleucu (Welsh)


  • Luken (Basque)
  • Lukian (Breton/Danish/German/Norwegian/Polish)
  • Lusian (Breton)
  • Llucià (Catalan)
  • Lucian (English: LOO-shen)
  • Lukianos (Finnish)
  • Lucien (French)
  • Lukianosz (Hungarian)
  • Lúkíanos (Icelandic)
  • Luciano (Italian/Galician/Portuguese/Spanish: Italian diminutives are Ciano, Luci and Lucio)
  • Lucianus (Latin/Dutch)
  • Lukiāns (Latvian)
  • Lukianas (Lithuanian)
  • Lucjan/Łucjan (Polish)
  • Luchian/Lucian (Romanian)
  • Lukián/Lucián (Slovakian)

Feminine forms are:

  • Liczenn (Breton)
  • Lucienne (French: luy-SYEN)
  • Luciana (Italian/Latin/Portuguese/Romanian/Spanish: Italian loo-CHAH-nah, Latin loo-KYAH-nah, Portuguese loo-SYAH-nah, Spanish: loo-THYAH-nah or loo-SYAH-nah)
  • Luciane (Brazilian Portuguese: loo-SYAH-nay)


  • Lucille/Lucile (French; English)
  • Lucilla (Italian/Latin: loo-CHEEL-lah in Italian)
  • Lucélia (Portuguese)
  • Lucília (Portuguese)
  • Lucila (Spanish/Portuguese)

An Italian masculine form is Lucilio


  • Lucius (English LOO-shus)
  • Luvcie (Estruscan)
  • Lucius/Luzius (German)
  • Lúciusz (Hungarian)
  • Lucietto (Italian: obscure)
  • Lucido/Lucidio (Italian: obscure)
  • Lucio (Italian: loo-CHEE-o)
  • Luciolo (Italian: obscure)
  • Lucione (Italian: obscure)
  • Lugh (Manx)
  • Ruhiu (Maori)
  • Lucjusz/Łucjusz (Polish: LOOT-syoosh)
  • Lúcio (Portuguese)
  • Luci (Romanian)
  • Luzi (Romansch)
  • Lucio (Spanish: loo-THEE-o, loo-SEE-o)


522px-Pompejanischer_Maler_um_80_v._Chr._001Gender: Feminine
Origin: Latin
Meaning: “hearth; fireside.”

The name is borne in Roman mythology by the goddess of the hearth, home and family. Not much is really known about her as she is not mentioned in any myths, but it is believed that she was a leftover ancient Etruscan goddess and it has been suggested that she actually had no relation with the Greek goddess Hestia as is popularly believed.

It is believed that the name is derived from the Greek Hestia which means “hearth; fireside.” In ancient Rome, the Vestals were women who took a vow of chastity for 30 years in order to keep the fire of the goddess kindled. It is said that if they broke their vow of chastity, they would be severely punished by being buried alive. In ancient Rome there was also a yearly festival called the Vestalia dedicated to the goddess, it usually occurred between June 7-15.

In Europe, its designated name-day is October 17. Another form of the name is the Estonian Veste. Italian forms are Vestia and Vestina. There is a Polish form: Westyna.

Ariadne, Ariadni, Ariadna

waterhouse_ariadneGender: Feminine
Origin: Greek
Meaning: “most holy; most chaste.”

The name is composed of the Cretan elements ari meaning “most” and adnos meaning “holy.” Other sources argue that it is composed of the ancient Greek elements ari meaning “most” and hagne meaning “chaste.”

In Greek mythology the name is borne by the daughter of King Minos and his wife Pasiphaë of Crete. Ariadne is most known for helping the hero Theseus overcome the minotaur and find his way back through the labyrinth by giving him a ball of red yarn. Ariadne was in love with Theseus and ran off with him after he had killed the minotaur, but Theseus had abandoned her while she was sleeping, on the isle of Naxos. This part of the myth has been popularly rendered in paintings. It is said that Ariadne later married the god Dionysus. Many scholars suggest that Ariadne was originally a pre-Olympian Cretan goddess.

The name was also borne by an early Christian martyr, a Christian slave who refused to participate in the regulatory libations to the local gods, legend says that she was hunted down by the authorities until she ran into a chasm that miraculously swallowed her up. Her feast is held on September 17 and she is a popular saint in the Greek Orthodox Church. In modern Greece, where the it is rendered in the conventional form of Ariadni, the name is still relatively common. It is growing in popularity in Spain and Poland as Ariadna. The Latin and Italian rendition of the name is Arianna, also a common name in Greece.

The name is borne by Greek-American author and syndicated columnist Arianna Huffington (b. 1950).

In recent years, its Italian form of Arianna has become quite prevalent in the U.S. coming in at # 66 among the top 1000 female names of 2008. The French form is Ariane and the more obscure Arienne. Another more modern version is Ariana, which comes in as the 81st most popular female name in the United States ( 2008). There is also an ancient Etruscan form Areatha.

Other forms include:

  • Arijadna (Croatian)
  • Ariadné (Hungarian)
  • Ariadnė (Lithuanian)


Gender: Feminine
Origin: Latin
Meaning: “magic spell, oracle, song.”

      In Roman Mythology, Carmenta is a pre-Latin goddess, possibly dating back to the Etruscans. She was the goddess of childbirth and prophecy. She was associated with technological innovations and was the patron of midwifery.

      She was also a member of the Carmenae goddesses: wise ancient goddesses who were associated with springs, rivers and fountains. They were somewhat the equivalent of Greek muses.

      The Ancient Romans also attributed the invention of the Latin alphabet to her. Her name is associated with the Latin word carmen meaning “magic spell, oracle or song,” though other sources suggest that the name is from a much older source and that its meaning is not clear. However, as an interesting side note, carmen is the root for the English and French word charm and the Spanish female name of Carmen shares the same etymology.

      Some legends attribute Carmenta as a Greek immigrant by the name of Nicostrata, (who fled the Trojan wars along with her son Evander). She was believed to have founded the city of Pallantium which was later absorbed into Rome, forming one of the seven hills. She was known as a great prophetess and for her wonderful singing voice, (hence the name).

      Though her festival was usually celebrated around January 11 or 15, (the Carmentalia), she was also honoured on the Feast of Expectant Mothers, which fell on July 2. After the fall of Rome and the introduction of Christianity, the feast was changed to the feast of the Visitation of the Blessed Virgin Mary.

      Another form is Carmentis

      The Julian Clan

      Julius, Julia, Julie, Juliette, Julilla we go into the name Julius lets remained focused on Julus/Iulus, (the names were rendered in Latin as Iulus, Iulius, Iulia and Iulilla). In Roman legend he was sometimes known as Ascanius and some sources have him down as the son of Aeneas and Creusa. He fled with his parents to the area of Rome to escape the raging war between Troy and Greece. In Virgil’s Aeneid, it mentions that Iulus had a role in founding the city of Rome. Other legendary sources, however, proclaim that Iulus was actually the son of Aeneas and Lavinia and that he was born in Lazio Italy, (the region in which Rome is situated), and he grew up to found the little city state of Alba Longa. His grandson was Aeneas Silvus. Supposedly, Julus grandmother was Venus. The origins of Julus/Iulus are not definite, but many sources believe that it is derived from the Greek Ioulos meaning “downy-bearded.” If this meaning is accurate it would suggest that the name was originally used to describe a pubescent boy who shows the first budding signs of facial hair. In that case, the name would be used in reference to someone who looked youthful

      Flash forward to the Roman Republic and we have the well known Julius Caesar. He is most notable for his revolutionary move of transforming the Republic into an Empire and thus proclaiming himself Emperor of Rome. Julius Caesar had both a daughter and sister named Julia. His sister was known as Julia while his daughter was known as Julia Caesaris Minor.
      In Christian legend, Julia is also borne by the early Martyr Saint Julia of Carthage. Julia was a Carthaginian noble woman but as a little girl, she was kidnapped and sold as a slave to a Roman master. Legend has it that she came from a Christian family, while her master was a follower of the old Roman gods. When her master had taken her to the Isle of Corsica, he tried to force her to participate in a local pagan festival. Julia refused to join in the festivities, however, and since she was not a Roman citizen, she had to die the undignified way of crucifixion. She is now considered the patron saint of Corsica and her feast is held on May 23rd.
      Julilla is a Latin diminutive off shoot of the name and might make an interesting twist on both Julia and the currently popular Lily. Julia is a very popular name throughout Europe, while Julie (ZHEW-LEE) is its French counterpart. In most of mainland Europe, though, Julia is pronounced (YOOL-yah); in Spain and South America as (HOO-lee-ah) and in Italy where its rendered as Giulia (JOO-lee-ah).

      From the French we get the diminutive spin off of Juliette, now considered a full fledged name in France and the Italian Giulietta, also considered an independent name in its own right. This is where we run into the anglicized Juliet.

      his particular spelling is an Anglicization of the Italian Giulietta. The name was first introduced into the English speaking world by William Shakespeare for his character in his star-crossed play, Romeo & Juliet (1596). Shakespeare based his play off of an Italian romance which had been translated into English by Arthur Brooke in 1562. The original tale was set in Siena and was written in 1467 by Masiuccio Salernitano who insisted it was based off of a true story. The character names, however, are a little different, they are named Mariotto (a diminutive form of Mario) and Gianozza a diminutive form of Giovanna. In 1530, another Italian author by the name of Luigi da Porto, took the same tale and changed the characters names to Romeo and Giulietta and reset the story in the city of his hometown Verona. It is from this version that Shakespeare’s inspiration had come.

      Julian, Julien, Juliane, Juliana, Julienne
      Julian is just an offshoot of Julius. Julian and Julien were born by several early Christian saints, as well as Julien the Hospotelier and Julian the Apostate. Juliana was born by several Italian saints throughout the ages, though rendered in its native language as Giuliana. Julienne is a French feminine form of Julien.

      Probably another ancient diminutive form of Julia, though some sources insist it is a Latin form of Judith, the name was borne by an early Christian martyr, who, when she refused to give up her religion was punished by watching her infant son get bludgeoned.

      An Icelandic Smush, the name is appears on the approved list of Icelandic female names. Pronounced as (YOO-lih-ROSE), the name literally means “July Rose.”

      Other forms of the name include:

      Male Versions

      • Julen (Basque)
      • Jolyon (English)
      • Julien/Jules (French)
      • Julian (German/Polish/English)
      • Gyula (Hungarian)
      • Giulio/Giuliano (Italian)
      • Juliusz (Polish)
      • Iuliu/Iulian (Romanian)
      • Juli (Romansch)
      • Yulian (Russian/Bulgarian)
      • Yuli (Russian)
      • Július (Slovakian)
      • Julij (Slovenian)
      • Julián (Spanish)
      • Julio (Spanish/Portuguese)
      • Yuliy (Ukrainian)

      Female Versions

      • Xhulia/Xhuliana (Albanian)
      • Iulia (Bulgarian/Romanian)
      • Yuliana (Bulgarian)
      • Julija (Croatian/Lithuanian/Slovene)
      • Juliana (Dutch/English/German/Portuguese/Spanish)
      • Jula/Jule (German)
      • Juli (German)
      • Juliane (German/French)
      • Ioula/Ioulía (Greek Modern)
      • Gillian (English)
      • Julia (English, German, Polish)
      • Juliet (English)
      • Juulia (Estonian)
      • Julie/Julienne (French)
      • Juliette (French)
      • Julina/Juline (German)
      • Juli/Júlia/Julinka/Juliska (Hungarian)
      • Julianna (Hungarian/Polish)
      • Júlía (Icelandic)
      • Iúile (Irish)
      • Giulia/Giuliana/Giulietta (Italian)
      • Julitta (Latin/Dutch/Romansch)
      • Džūliaja (Latvian)
      • Jūlija (Latvian)
      • Julita (Polish)
      • Iuliana (Romanian)
      • Iulscha (Romansch)
      • Geletta (Romansch)
      • Gelgia (Romansch)
      • Uliana (Russian)
      • Yulia (Russian)
      • Julijana (Slovenian)
      • Julieta (Spanish)
      • Yuliya (Ukrainian/Bulgarian)
      • Ulyana (Ukrainian)

      Palatine, Palatyne, Palestine, Kestenn

      Gender: Female
      Origin: French/Celtic
      Meaning: debated
      Pronunciation French (pah-lah-TEEN); English (pal-uh-TINE)

      The name is found in French folklore as the name of the daughter of Pressyne and Elynas, and the sister of Mélusine.

      Palatine was cursed by her mother to be locked in the Aragonese mountains with her father’s treasures, accompanied by a bear and serpent. Only a knight could free her and save her, on the condition that he be of the same bloodline as her father’s.

      Throughout the years, many knights did just that, but had failed. However, a knight of King Arthur’s court, and the relative of Tristan, decided to climb the mountain and free the princess. He had to scale a mountain covered in venemous snakes, and then face the bear that guarded the entrance to the cave, all of which he killed. Finally he was able to enter the cave, but within the first chamber was a large serpent with one eye. The snake swallowed him up, and the knight was defeated in his quest, because, as it turned out, he was not of the right lineage.

      Years later, Geoffrey-with-the-great-tooth, the nephew of Palatyne, had spent his life saving time, money and energy to rescue his aunt. However, he grew old, and died before he was able to commence his quest, and it is said that till this day, Palatyne still awaits within her mountain top for the right knight of the right lineage to free her.

      This is also the name of one of the 7 hills of Rome, a location which has its own legends.

      In Ancient Roman folklore, the Palatine is where the Lupercal cave is to be found, the cave where Romulus and Remus were rescued and milked by a wolf. Another legend holds that Hercules defeated the monster Cacus, on the same hill.

      The etymology of the name is debated, whether the fairy Palatyne and the name of the hill are related is not proven, but very possible. The fact that both legends contain a mountain top or hill top as their focal point makes it plausible.

      According to the Roman historian Livy (59 BC-Ad 17), the hill got its name from the Arcadian settlement of pallatium, which is derived from the Latin palatum meaning “palate.” According to another ancient source, Ennius, the name is derived from an Etruscan word meaning “sky” or “heavens.” The term palace gets its name from the Palatine hill.

      Other sources point its etymology to a Breton source, it is suggested that Palatine, (or Palestine in some instances), is a medieval French corruption of the Breton Bac’h C’hesten, bac’h means “cell; unit” and c’hesten means “hive; beehive.” Hence “hive pupa.” This is supported by the fact that in the legend, Palatine is an enclosed in a cell in the mountains like a bee in a beehive.

      The name was borne by an early Christian martyr, Saint Palatino, and its masculine form is still in usage in Italy today. There is also a more obscure feminine version of Palatina.

      Another French form is Palestine (pah-le-STEEN), and a possible Breton form is Kestenn.


      Gender: Masculine
      Origin: Latin
      Pronunciation” (AW-lus; OW-lus)

        A Roman praenomen of conjectured meaning, some sources contend that it is Etruscan in origins, others feel that it is derived from the Latin word aula meaning “palace,” or possibly even from the word auvulus meaning “grandfather.” Some sources have listed this as the Latin alternative to the Greek aulos, which was an ancient Greek musical instrument.

        There are several men who bore this name throughout Roman history.